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DOI: 10.32604/cmes.2022.016924


Some Formulas Involving Hypergeometric Functions in Four Variables

Hassen Aydi1,2,3, Ashish Verma4, Jihad Younis5 and Jung Rye Lee6,*

1Université de Sousse, Institut Supérieur D’Informatique et, Des Techniques de Communication, H. Sousse, 4000, Tunisia
2Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa
3China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan
4Department of Mathematics, V. B. S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, 222003, India
5Department of Mathematics, Aden University, Khormaksar, P.o. Box 6014, Yemen
6Department of Data Science, Daejin University, Kyunggi, 11159, Korea
*Corresponding Author: Jung Rye Lee. Email: jrlee@daejin.ac.kr
Received: 10 April 2021; Accepted: 16 August 2021

Abstract: Several (generalized) hypergeometric functions and a variety of their extensions have been presented and investigated in the literature by many authors. In the present paper, we investigate four new hypergeometric functions in four variables and then establish several recursion formulas for these new functions. Also, some interesting particular cases and consequences of our results are discussed.

Keywords: Recursion formula; quadruple hypergeometric functions; pascal; identity
AMS Subject Classification: 15A15; 33C65

1  Introduction

In recent years, many researchers introduced and studied several extensions and generalizations of various special functions due to its applications in diverse areas of mathematical, physical, engineering, etc. Agarwal et al. [1,2] established some properties for generalized Gauss hypergeometric functions, which were introduced by Özergin et al. Later, Agarwal et al. [3] and Çetinkaya et al. [4] introduced and investigated further extensions of Appell’s hypergeometric functions of two variables and Lauricella’s hypergeometric functions of three variables by using the generalized Beta type function. Purohit et al. [5] investigated Chebyshev type inequalities involving fractional integral operator containing a multi-index Mittag-Leffler function in the kernel. Suthar et al. [6] introduced certain generalized forms of the fractional kinetic equation pertaining to the (p, q)-Mathieu-type power series using the Laplace transforms technique. Chandola et al. [7] defined a new extension of beta function using the Appell series and the Lauricella function. The interested reader may be referred to several recent papers on the subject (see, e.g., [811] and the references cited therein).

Hypergeometric functions in several variables have many applications in applied problems (see, e.g., [1216]). Also, multidimensional hypergeometric functions are used to solve boundary value problems (Dirichlet problem, Neumann problem, Holmgren problem, etc) for multidimensional degenerate differential equations (see [1719]). In [20], Exton defined twenty one complete hypergeometric functions in four variables denoted by the symbols K1, K2,, K21. In [21], Sharma et al. introduced eighty three complete quadruple hypergeometric functions, namely F1(4),F2(4),,F83(4). Very recently, Younis et al. [22] introduced and studied further quadruple hypergeometric functions denoted by X85(4),X86(4),,X90(4). Each quadruple hypergeometric function in [2022] is of the form:


where Δ(m, n, p, q) is a certain sequence of complex parameters and there are twelve parameters in each series X(4)(.) (eight as and four cs). The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th parameters in X(4)(.) are connected with the integers m, n, p and q, respectively. Each repeated parameter in the series X(4)(.) points out a term with double parameters in δ(m, n, p, q). For example, X(4)(σ1,σ1,σ2,σ2,σ3,σ3,σ4,σ5) mean that (σ1)m+n(σ2)p+q (σ3)m+n(σ4)p(σ5)q includes the term. Similarly, X(4)(σ1,σ1,σ1,σ2,σ1,σ1,σ2,σ3) points out the term (σ1)2m+2n+p (σ2)p+q (σ3)q and X(4)(σ1, σ1, σ2, σ4, σ1, σ2, σ3, σ5) shows the existence of the term (σ1)2m+n(σ2)n+p(σ3)p(σ4)q(σ5)q. Thus, it is possible to form various combinations of indices. There seems to be no way of establishing independently the number of distinct Gaussian hypergeometric series for any given integer n 2 without stating explicitly all such series. Thus, in every situation with n = 4, one ought to begin by actually constructing the set just as in the case n = 3 (see [23]). Motivated by the works [2022], we decide to define further hypergeometric functions in four variables as follows:

X91(4)(σ1,σ1,σ2,σ4,σ1,σ2,σ3,σ5;ρ1,ρ1,ρ2,ρ1;x,y,z,u)=m,n,p,q=0(σ1)2m+n(σ2)n+p(σ3)p(σ4)q(σ5)q(ρ1)m+n+p(ρ2)qxmm!ynn!zpp!uqq!,(|x|<14,|y|<1,|z|<1,|u|<1); (1)

X92(4)(σ1,σ1,σ2,σ4,σ1,σ2,σ3,σ5;ρ1,ρ2,ρ1,ρ1;x,y,z,u)=m,n,p,q=0(σ1)2m+n(σ2)n+p(σ3)p(σ4)q(σ5)q(ρ1)m+p+q(ρ2)nxmm!ynn!zpp!uqq!,(|x|<14,|y|<1,|z|<1,|u|<1); (2)

X93(4)(σ1,σ1,σ2,σ4,σ1,σ2,σ3,σ5;ρ2,ρ1,ρ1,ρ1;x,y,z,u)=m,n,p,q=0(σ1)2m+n(σ2)n+p(σ3)p(σ4)q(σ5)q(ρ1)n+p+q(ρ2)mxmm!ynn!zpp!uqq!,(|x|<14,|y|<1,|z|<1,|u|<1); (3)

X94(4)(σ1,σ1,σ2,σ4,σ1,σ2,σ3,σ5;c,c,c,c;x,y,z,u)=m,n,p,q=0(σ1)2m+n(σ2)n+p(σ3)p(σ4)q(σ5)q(c)m+n+p+qxmm!ynn!zpp!uqq!,(|x|<14,|y|<1,|z|<1,|u|<1), (4)



Here, C,Z0 and N denote the sets of complex numbers, non-positive integers, and positive integers, respectively.

Recently, many authors have obtained several recursion formulas involving hypergeometric functions in several variables. In Opps et al. [24], introduced the recursion formulas for the Appell’s function F2 and gave its applications to radiation field problems. Wang [25] presented the recursion formulas for Appell functions F1, F2, F3 and F4. Sahai et al. [26,27] established the recursion formulas for Lauricella’s triple functions, Srivastava hypergeometric functions in three variables, k-variable Lauricella functions and the Srivastava-Daoust and related multivariable hypergeometric functions. Shehata et al. [28] discussed and derived new recursion relations for the Horn’s hypergeometric functions. In this present paper, we aim to establish several recursion formulas for the new hypergeometric functions in four variables defined by (1.1)–(1.4).

The following abbreviated notations are used in this paper. We, for example, write X91(4) for the series X91(4)(σ1,σ1,σ2,σ4,σ1,σ2,σ3,σ5;ρ1,ρ1,ρ2,ρ1;x,y,z,u) and X91(4)(σ1+n) for X91(4)(σ1+n,σ1+n,σ2,σ4,σ1,σ2,σ3,σ5;ρ1,ρ1,ρ2,ρ1;x,y,z,u). The notation X91(4)(σ1+n,σ2+n1) stands for X91(4)(σ1+n,σ1+n,σ2+n1,σ4,σ1+n,σ2+n1,σ3,σ5;ρ1,ρ1,ρ2,ρ1;x,y,z,u) and X91(4)(σ1+n,σ2+n1,ρ1+n2) stands for X91(4)(a1+n,σ1+n,σ2+n1,σ4,σ1+n,σ2+n1,σ3,σ5;ρ1+n2,ρ1+n2,ρ2,ρ1;x,y,z,u), etc.

2  Main Results

Here, we establish several recursion formulas for our hypergeometric functions in four variables.

Theorem 2.1 The following recursion formulas hold true for the numerator parameter σ1, σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5 of the X91(4):

X91(4)(σ1+n)=X91(4)+2xρ1n1=1n(σ1+n1)X91(4)(σ1+1+n1,ρ1+1)+yσ2ρ1n1=1nX91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+1,ρ1+1), (5)

X91(4)(σ1n)=X91(4)2xρ1n1=1n(σ1+1n1)X91(4)(σ1+2n1,ρ1+1)yσ2ρ1n1=1nX91(4)(σ1+1n1,σ2+1,ρ1+1), (6)

X91(4)(σ2+n)=X91(4)+yσ1ρ1n1=1nX91(4)(σ1+1,σ2+n1,ρ1+1)+zσ3ρ2n1=1nX91(4)(σ2+n1,σ3+1,ρ2+1), (7)

X91(4)(σ2n)=X91(4)yσ1ρ1n1=1nX91(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1n1,ρ1+1)zσ3ρ2n1=1nX91(4)(σ2+1n1,σ3+1,ρ2+1), (8)

X91(4)(σ3+n)=X91(4)+zσ2ρ2n1=1nX91(4)(σ2+1,σ3+n1,ρ2+1), (9)

X91(4)(σ3n)=X91(4)zσ2ρ2n1=1nX91(4)(σ2+1,σ3+1n1,ρ2+1), (10)

X91(4)(σ4+n)=X91(4)+uσ5ρ1n1=1nX91(4)(σ5+1,σ4+n1,ρ1+1), (11)

X91(4)(σ4n)=X91(4)uσ5ρ1n1=1nX91(4)(σ5+1,σ4+1n1,ρ1+1), (12)

X91(4)(σ5+n)=X91(4)+uσ4ρ1n1=1nX91(4)(σ4+1,σ5+n1,ρ1+1), (13)

X91(4)(σ5n)=X91(4)uσ4ρ1n1=1nX91(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1n1,ρ1+1). (14)

Proof. From the definition of the hypergeometric function X91(4) and the relation

(σ1+1)2m+n=(σ1)2m+n(1+2mσ1+nσ1) (15)

we obtain the following contiguous relation:

X91(4)(σ1+1)=X91(4)+2xρ1(σ1+1)X91(4)(σ1+2,ρ1+1)+yσ2ρ1X91(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1,ρ1+1). (16)

To find a contiguous relation for X91(4)(σ1+2), we replace σ1 by σ1 + 1 in (16) and simplify. This leads to:

X91(4)(σ1+2)=X91(4)+2xρ1n1=12(σ1+n1)X91(4)(σ1+n1+1,ρ1+1)+yσ2ρ1n1=12X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+1,ρ1+1). (17)

Iterating this process n-times, we obtain (5). For the proof of (6), replace the parameter σ1 by σ11 in (15). This implies that

X91(4)(σ11)=X12xρ1σ1X91(4)(σ1+1,ρ1+1)yσ2ρ1X91(4)(σ2+1,ρ1+1). (18)

Iteratively, we get (6).

The recursion formulas from (7)(14) can be proved in a similar manner.

Theorem 2.2 The following recursion formulas hold true for the numerator parameter σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5 of the X91(4):

X91(4)(σ2+n)=N2n(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(ρ1)n1(ρ2)n2X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,ρ1+n1,ρ2+n2), (19)

X91(4)(σ2n)=N2n(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2(y)n1(z)n2(ρ1)n1(ρ2)n2X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ3+n2,ρ1+n1,ρ2+n2), (20)

X91(4)(σ3+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ2)n1zn1(ρ2)n2X91(4)(σ2+n1,σ3+n1,ρ2+n1), (21)

X91(4)(σ3n)=n1n(nn1)(σ2)n1(z)n1(ρ2)n1X91(4)(σ2+n1,ρ2+n1), (22)

X91(4)(σ4+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ5)n1un1(ρ1)n1X91(4)(σ4+n1,σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (23)

X91(4)(σ4n)=n1n(nn1)(σ5)n1(u)n1(ρ1)n1X91(4)(σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (24)

X91(4)(σ5+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ4)n1un1(ρ1)n1X91(4)(σ4+n1,σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (25)

X91(4)(σ5n)=n1n(nn1)(σ4)n1(u)n1(ρ1)n1X91(4)(σ4+n1,ρ1+n1), (26)

where (nn1,n2)=n!n1!n2!(nn1n2)! and N2=n1+n2.

Proof. The proof of (19) is based upon the principle of a mathematical induction on nN. For n = 1, the result (19) is true obviously following (7). Suppose (19) is true for n = m, that is,

X91(4)(σ2+m)=N2m(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(ρ1)n1(ρ2)n2X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,ρ1+n1,ρ2+n2), (27)

Replacing σ2 with σ2+ 1 in (27) and using the contiguous relation (7) for n = 1, we get

X91(4)(σ2+m+1)=N2m(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(ρ1)n1(ρ2)n2×{X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,ρ1+n1,ρ2+n2)+(σ1+n1)y(ρ1+n1)X91(4)(σ1+n1+1,σ2+N2+1,σ3+n2,ρ1+n1+1,ρ2+n1)+(σ3+n2)z(ρ2+n2)X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2+1,σ3+n2+1,ρ1+n1,ρ2+n2+1)}. (28)

By a simplification, (28) takes the form

X91(4)(a2+m+1)=N2m(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(ρ1)n1(ρ2)n2×X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,ρ1+n1,ρ2+n2)+N2m+1(nn11,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(ρ1)n1(ρ2)n2×X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,ρ1+n1,ρ2+n2)+N2m+1(nn1,n21)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(ρ1)n1(ρ2)n2×X91(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,ρ1+n1,ρ2+n2). (29)

Using the Pascal’s identity in (29), we have


This establishes (19) for n = m + 1. Hence, by induction, the result given in (19) is true for all values of n. The recursion formulas (20)(26) can be proved in a similar manner.

Theorem 2.3 The following recursion formulas hold true for the denominator parameter ρ1, ρ2 of the X91(4):

X91(4)(ρ1n)=X91(4)+(σ1)2xn1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X91(4)(σ1+2,ρ1+2n1)+σ1σ2yn1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X91(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1,ρ1+2n1)+σ4σ5un1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X91(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1,ρ1+2n1), (30)

X91(4)(ρ2n)=X91(4)+σ4σ5un1=1n1(ρ2n1)(ρ2+1n1)X91(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1,ρ2+2n1). (31)

Proof. Applying the definition of the hypergeometric function X91(4) and the relation

1(ρ11)m+n+q=1(ρ1)m+n+q(1+mρ11+nρ11+qρ11), (32)

we have:

X91(4)(ρ11)=X91(4)+(σ1)2xρ1(ρ11)X91(4)(σ1+2,ρ1+1)+σ1σ2yρ1(ρ11)X91(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1,ρ1+2n1)+σ4σ5uρ1(ρ11)X91(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1,ρ1+2n1). (33)

Using this contiguous relation to the X91(4) with the parameter ρ1n for n-times, we get the result (30). The recursion formula (31) can be proved in a similar manner.

Theorem 2.4 The following recursion formulas hold true for the numerator parameter σ1, σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5 of the X92(4):

X92(4)(σ1+n)=X92(4)+2xρ1n1=1n(σ1+n1)X92(4)(σ1+1+n1,ρ1+1)+yσ2ρ2n1=1nX92(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+1,ρ2+1), (34)

X92(4)(σ1n)=X92(4)2xρ1n1=1n(σ1+1n1)X92(4)(σ1+2n1,ρ1+1)yσ2ρ2n1=1nX92(4)(σ1+1n1,σ2+1,ρ2+1), (35)

X92(4)(σ2+n)=X92(4)+yσ1ρ2n1=1nX92(4)(σ1+1,σ2+n1,ρ2+1)+zσ3ρ1n1=1nX92(4)(σ2+n1,σ3+1,ρ1+1), (36)

X92(4)(σ2n)=X92(4)yσ1ρ2n1=1nX92(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1n1,ρ2+1)zσ3ρ1n1=1nX92(4)(σ2+1n1,σ3+1,ρ1+1), (37)

X92(4)(σ3+n)=X92(4)+zσ2ρ1n1=1nX92(4)(σ2+1,σ3+n1,ρ1+1), (38)

X92(4)(σ3n)=X92(4)zσ2ρ1n1=1nX92(4)(σ2+1,σ3+1n1,ρ1+1), (39)

X92(4)(σ4+n)=X92(4)+uσ5ρ1n1=1nX92(4)(σ5+1,σ4+n1,ρ1+1), (40)

X92(4)(σ4n)=X92(4)uσ5ρ1n1=1nX92(4)(σ5+1,σ4+1n1,ρ1+1) (41)

X92(4)(σ5+n)=X92(4)+uσ4ρ1n1=1nX92(4)(σ4+1,σ5+n1,ρ1+1), (42)

X92(4)(σ5n)=X92(4)uσ4ρ1n1=1nX92(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1n1,ρ1+1). (43)

Theorem 2.5 The following recursion formulas hold true for the numerator parameter σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5 of the X92(4):

X92(4)(σ2+n)=N2n(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(ρ1)n2(ρ2)n1X92(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,ρ1+n2,ρ2+n1), (44)

X92(4)(σ2n)=N2n(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2(y)n1(z)n2(ρ1)n2(ρ2)n1X92(4)(σ1+n1,σ3+n2,ρ1+n2,ρ2+n1), (45)

X92(4)(σ3+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ2)n1zn1(ρ1)n1X92(4)(σ2+n1,σ3+n1,ρ1+n1), (46)

X92(4)(σ3n)=n1n(nn1)(σ2)n1(z)n1(ρ1)n1X92(4)(σ2+n1,ρ1+n1), (47)

X92(4)(σ4+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ5)n1un1(ρ1)n1X92(4)(σ4+n1,σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (48)

X92(4)(σ4n)=n1n(nn1)(σ5)n1(u)n1(ρ1)n1X92(4)(σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (49)

X92(4)(σ5+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ4)n1un1(ρ1)n1X92(4)(σ4+n1,σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (50)

X92(4)(σ5n)=n1n(nn1)(σ4)n1(u)n1(ρ1)n1X92(4)(σ4+n1,ρ1+n1), (51)

where N2=n1+n2.

Theorem 2.6 The following recursion formulas hold true for the denominator parameter ρ1, ρ2 of the X92(4):

X92(4)(ρ1n)=X92(4)+(σ1)2xn1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X92(4)(σ1+2,ρ1+2n1)+σ2σ3zn1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X92(4)(σ2+1,σ3+1,ρ1+2n1)+σ4σ5un1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X92(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1,ρ1+2n1), (52)

X92(4)(ρ2n)=X92(4)+σ1σ2yn1=1n1(ρ2n1)(ρ2+1n1)X92(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1,ρ2+2n1). (53)

Theorem 2.7 The following recursion formulas hold true for the numerator parameter σ1, σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5 of the X93(4):

X93(4)(σ1+n)=X93(4)+2xρ1n1=1n(σ1+n1)X93(4)(σ1+1+n1,ρ1+1)+yσ2ρ2n1=1nX93(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+1,ρ2+1), (54)

X93(4)(σ1n)=X93(4)2xρ1n1=1n(σ1+1n1)X93(4)(σ1+2n1,ρ1+1)yσ2ρ2n1=1nX93(4)(σ1+1n1,σ2+1,ρ2+1), (55)

X93(4)(σ2+n)=X93(4)+yσ1ρ2n1=1nX93(4)(σ1+1,σ2+n1,ρ2+1)+zσ3ρ1n1=1nX93(4)(σ2+n1,σ3+1,ρ1+1), (56)

X93(4)(σ2n)=X93(4)yσ1ρ2n1=1nX93(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1n1,ρ2+1)zσ3ρ1n1=1nX93(4)(σ2+1n1,σ3+1,ρ1+1), (57)

X93(4)(σ3+n)=X93(4)+zσ2ρ1n1=1nX93(4)(σ2+1,σ3+n1,ρ1+1), (58)

X93(4)(σ3n)=X93(4)zσ2ρ1n1=1nX93(4)(σ2+1,σ3+1n1,ρ1+1), (59)

X93(4)(σ4+n)=X93(4)+uσ5ρ1n1=1nX93(4)(σ5+1,σ4+n1,ρ1+1), (60)

X93(4)(σ4n)=X93(4)uσ5ρ1n1=1nX93(4)(σ5+1,σ4+1n1,ρ1+1), (61)

X93(4)(σ5+n)=X93(4)+uσ4ρ1n1=1nX93(4)(σ4+1,σ5+n1,ρ1+1), (62)

X93(4)(σ5n)=X93(4)uσ4ρ1n1=1nX93(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1n1,ρ1+1). (63)

Theorem 2.8 The following recursion formulas hold true for the numerator parameter σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5 of the X93(4):

X93(4)(σ2+n)=N2n(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(ρ1)N2X93(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,ρ1+N2), (64)

X93(4)(σ2n)=N2n(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2(y)n1(z)n2(ρ1)N2X93(4)(σ1+n1,σ3+n2,ρ1+N2), (65)

X93(4)(σ3+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ2)n1zn1(ρ1)n1X93(4)(σ2+n1,σ3+n1,ρ1+n1), (66)

X93(4)(σ3n)=n1n(nn1)(σ2)n1(z)n1(ρ1)n1X93(4)(σ2+n1,ρ1+n1), (67)

X93(4)(σ4+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ5)n1un1(ρ1)n1X93(4)(σ4+n1,σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (68)

X93(4)(σ4n)=n1n(nn1)(σ5)n1(u)n1(ρ1)n1X93(4)(σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (69)

X93(4)(σ5+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ4)n1un1(ρ1)n1X93(4)(σ4+n1,σ5+n1,ρ1+n1), (70)

X93(4)(σ5n)=n1n(nn1)(σ4)n1(u)n1(ρ1)n1X93(4)(σ4+n1,ρ1+n1), (71)

where N2=n1+n2.

Theorem 2.9 The following recursion formulas hold true for the denominator parameter ρ1, ρ2 of the X93(4):

X93(4)(ρ1n)=X93(4)+σ1σ2yn1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X93(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1,ρ1+2n1)+σ2σ3zn1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X93(4)(σ2+1,σ3+1,ρ1+2n1)+σ4σ5un1=1n1(ρ1n1)(ρ1+1n1)X93(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1,ρ1+2n1), (72)

X93(4)(ρ2n)=X93(4)+(σ1)2xn1=1n1(ρ2n1)(ρ2+1n1)X93(4)(σ1+2,ρ2+2n1). (73)

Theorem 2.10 The following recursion formulas hold true for the numerator parameter σ1, σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5 of the X94(4):

X94(4)(σ1+n)=X94(4)+2xcn1=1n(σ1+n1)X94(4)(σ1+1+n1,c+1)+yσ2cn1=1nX94(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+1,c+1), (74)

X94(4)(σ1n)=X94(4)2xcn1=1n(σ1+1n1)X94(4)(σ1+2n1,c+1)yσ2cn1=1nX94(4)(σ1+1n1,σ2+1,c+1), (75)

X94(4)(σ2+n)=X94(4)+yσ1cn1=1nX94(4)(σ1+1,σ2+n1,c+1)+zσ3cn1=1nX94(4)(σ2+n1,σ3+1,c+1), (76)

X94(4)(σ2n)=X94(4)yσ1cn1=1nX94(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1n1,c+1)zσ3cn1=1nX94(4)(σ2+1n1,σ3+1,c+1), (77)

X94(4)(σ3+n)=X94(4)+zσ2cn1=1nX94(4)(σ2+1,σ3+n1,c+1), (78)

X94(4)(σ3n)=X94(4)zσ2cn1=1nX94(4)(σ2+1,σ3+1n1,c+1), (79)

X94(4)(σ4+n)=X94(4)+uσ5cn1=1nX94(4)(σ5+1,σ4+n1,c+1), (80)

X94(4)(σ4n)=X94(4)uσ5cn1=1nX94(4)(σ5+1,σ4+1n1,c+1) (81)

X94(4)(σ5+n)=X94(4)+uσ4cn1=1nX94(4)(σ4+1,σ5+n1,c+1), (82)

X94(4)(σ5n)=X94(4)uσ4cn1=1nX94(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1n1,c+1). (83)

Theorem 2.11 The following recursion formulas hold true for the numerator parameter σ2, σ3, σ4, σ5 of the X94(4):

X94(4)(σ2+n)=N2n(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2yn1zn2(c)N2X94(4)(σ1+n1,σ2+N2,σ3+n2,c+N2), (84)

X94(4)(σ2n)=N2n(nn1,n2)(σ1)n1(σ3)n2(y)n1(z)n2(c)N2X94(4)(σ1+n1,σ3+n2,c+N2), (85)

X94(4)(σ3+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ2)n1zn1(c)n1X94(4)(σ2+n1,σ3+n1,c+n1), (86)

X94(4)(σ3n)=n1n(nn1)(σ2)n1(z)n1(c)n1X94(4)(σ2+n1,c+n1), (87)

X94(4)(σ4+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ5)n1un1(c)n1X94(4)(σ4+n1,σ5+n1,c+n1), (88)

X94(4)(σ4n)=n1n(nn1)(σ5)n1(u)n1(c)n1X94(4)(σ5+n1,c+n1), (89)

X94(4)(σ5+n)=n1n(nn1)(σ4)n1un1(c)n1X94(4)(σ4+n1,σ5+n1,c+n1), (90)

X94(4)(σ5n)=n1n(nn1)(σ4)n1(u)n1(c)n1X94(4)(σ4+n1,c+n1), (91)

where N2=n1+n2.

Theorem 2.12 The following recursion formulas hold true for the denominator parameter c of the X94(4):

X94(4)(cn)=X94(4)+(σ1)2xn1=1n1(cn1)(c+1n1)X94(4)(σ1+2,c+2n1)       +σ1σ2yn1=1n1(cn1)(c+1n1)X94(4)(σ1+1,σ2+1,c+2n1)       +σ2σ3zn1=1n1(cn1)(c+1n1)X94(4)(σ2+1,σ3+1,c+2n1)       +σ4σ5un1=1n1(cn1)(c+1n1)X94(4)(σ4+1,σ5+1,c+2n1). (92)

3  Conclusion

Hypergeometric functions in several variables play an essential role in diverse areas of science and engineering. The advancements in applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and other areas of science have led to increasing interest in the study of hypergeometric functions. Also, special functions and its properties are used to solve various problems in science and engineering. In this paper, we have derived several recursion formulas for new hypergeometric functions in four variables. Also, some interested particular cases and consequences of our results have been discussed. In the future, these recursion formulas for the hypergeometric functions in four variables may find applications in various branches of mathematics, mathematical physics, engineering and related areas of study.

Data Availability: The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Authors’ Contributions: All authors contributed equally and significantly in writing this article. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding Statement: The authors received no specific funding for this study.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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