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 Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences

DOI: 10.32604/cmes.2022.019965

ARTICLE

Asymptotic Approximations of Apostol-Tangent Polynomials in Terms of Hyperbolic Functions

1Research Institute for Computational Mathematics and Physics, Cebu Normal University, Cebu City, 6000, Philippines
2Mathematics Department, Cebu Normal University, Cebu City, 6000, Philippines
3Department of Mathematics, Cebu Technological University, Cebu City, 6000, Philippines
*Corresponding Author: Roberto B. Corcino. Email: rcorcino@yahoo.com
Received: 27 October 2021; Accepted: 30 December 2021

Abstract: The tangent polynomials Tn(z) are generalization of tangent numbers or the Euler zigzag numbers Tn. In particular, Tn(0)=Tn. These polynomials are closely related to Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials. One of the extensions and analogues of special polynomials that attract the attention of several mathematicians is the Apostol-type polynomials. One of these Apostol-type polynomials is the Apostol-tangent polynomials Tn(z,λ). When λ=1, Tn(z,1)=Tn(z). The use of hyperbolic functions to derive asymptotic approximations of polynomials together with saddle point method was applied to the Bernoulli and Euler polynomials by Lopez and Temme. The same method was applied to the Genocchi polynomials by Corcino et al. The essential steps in applying the method are (1) to obtain the integral representation of the polynomials under study using their exponential generating functions and the Cauchy integral formula, and (2) to apply the saddle point method. It is found out that the method is applicable to Apostol-tangent polynomials. As a result, asymptotic approximation of Apostol-tangent polynomials in terms of hyperbolic functions are derived for large values of the parameter n and uniform approximation with enlarged region of validity are also obtained. Moreover, higher-order Apostol-tangent polynomials are introduced. Using the same method, asymptotic approximation of higher-order Apostol-tangent polynomials in terms of hyperbolic functions are derived and uniform approximation with enlarged region of validity are also obtained. It is important to note that the consideration of Apostol-type polynomials and higher order Apostol-type polynomials were not done by Lopez and Temme. This part is first done in this paper. The accuracy of the approximations are illustrated by plotting the graphs of the exact values of the Apostol-tangent and higher-order Apostol-tangent polynomials and their corresponding approximate values for specific values of the parameters n,λ and m.

Keywords: Apostol-tangent polynomials; tangent polynomials; Genocchi polynomials; Hermite polynomials; asymptotic approximation

1  Introduction

The Apostol-tangent polynomials denoted by Tn(z;λ),λ0 are defined by generating function (see [1])

2ezwλe2w+1=n=0Tn(z;λ)wnn!, (1)

where λϵC and the validity of the series in Eq. (1) is given as follows:

|w|<{π2whenλ=1πwhenλ1.

when λ=1, the equation gives the generating function for the classical tangent polynomials Tn(z) given by (see [2,3])

2ezwe2w+1=n=0Tn(z)wnn!,|w|<π2. (2)

Setting z=0 in Eqs. (1) and (2), we obtain

Tn(0,λ):=Tn(λ) and Tn(0):=Tn, (3)

where Tn(λ) and Tn are called the Apostol-tangent numbers and classical tangent numbers, respectively (see [1,4]).

First few values of the Apostol-tangent polynomials are given below:

T0(z;λ)=21+λ,T1(z;λ)=2[z+(2+z)λ](1+λ)2,T2(z;λ)=2[4λ+(z+(2+z)λ)2](1+λ)3,T3(z;λ)=2(1+λ)4[6z2λ(1+λ)2]+z3(1+λ)38λ(4+λ)λ)+12λ(1+λ2)],T4(z;λ)=2(1+λ)5[24z2(1+λ)λ(1+λ)28z3λ(1+λ)3+z4(1+λ)4+16(1+λ)λ(1+(10+λ)λ)32λ(1+λ)(1+(4+λ)λ)].

The Apostol-tangent polynomials are extensions of the classical tangent polynomials. The latter have become an interesting area for many mathematicians for their extensions and analogues possess properties that are relevant in analytic number theory and physics (see [58]). In [1], the 2-variable q generalized tangent-Apostol type polynomials were introduced and investigated as a new class of q-hybrid special polynomials.

Asymptotic approximations for Bernoulli polynomials Bn(nz+12) and Euler polynomials En(nz+12) in terms of hyperbolic functions are established in [9]. In the study of Corcino et al. [10], the Genichi polynomials are expressed as

Gn(z+12)=n!2πiCwewzcosh(w/2)dwwn+1 (4)

where the contour C encircles the origin in the counterclockwise direction and contains no poles of 1/cosh(w/2). With this, they have derived the asymptotic formulas for Gn(z+12) in terms of hyperbolic functions. However, asymptotic approximations of Apostol-tangent polynomials parallel to the results obtained in [9] and [10], are not mentioned and found in those studies and other related literature.

In this study, the asymptotic approximations of the Apostol-tangent polynomials Tn(z;λ) for large n which are uniformly valid in some unbounded region of the complex variable z, are derived using saddle point method as used in [9] and [10]. Moreover, asymptotic expansion of higher-order Apostol-tangent polynomials Tnm(z;λ) is obtained. Corresponding asymptotic formulas of the tangent polynomials are given as corollaries.

2  Asymptotic Expansions of Apostol-Tangent Polynomials

Theorem 2.1. For λϵC{0}, and zϵC such that |Imz1|<πArgλ2 and |z1|<|z1(πi2δ)| and n1,

Tn(nz+1;λ)=nnznsech (z1+δ)λ{112sech2(z1+δ)2nz2+O(1n2)}, (5)

where δ=(logλ)/2 and the logarithim is taken to be the principal branch.

Proof. Applying the Cauchy Integral Formula [11] to Eq. (1), we have

Tn(z;λ)=n!2πiC2ewze2δ+2w+1dwwn+1, (6)

where C is a circle about the origin with radius <|πi2δ|. With 2e(w+δ)cosh(w+δ=e(2w+2δ))+1, it follows from Eq. (6) that

Tn(z+1;λ)=n!2πiλCf(w)ezwwwn+1, (7)

where λ=e(logλ)/2=eδ and f(w)=1/cosh(w+δ). The function f(w) is meromorphic function with simple poles at the zeros of cosh(w+δ) which are given by wj=(2j+1)πi2δ,j=0,±1,±2,

Now take znz and let nz with z fixed. It follows from Eq. (7) that

Tn(nz+1;λ)=n!2πiλCf(w)en(zwlogw)dww. (8)

The main contribution of the integrand above to the integral occurs at the saddle point of the argument of the exponential [12]. This saddle point is at the point w=1/z=z1,z0. Assume that z1 is not a pole of f(w). Then approximations of Tn(nz+1;λ) can be obtained by expanding f(w) around the saddle point [1316]. Let

f(w)=k=0f(k)(z1)k!(wz1)k,|wz1|<r (9)

where r is the distance from z1 to the nearest singularity of f(w). For w is the circle C, the above series is absolutely convergent if the saddle point z1 is closer to the origin than to any of the singularities wj. That is, if z1 is in the strip |Imz1|<πArgλ2 and |z1|<|z1wj| for j=0,±1,±2,... It follows from Lemma 1, Lemma 2 and Theorem 1 of [16] that

Tn(nz+1;λ)=(nz)nλk=0f(k)(z1)k!pk(n)(nz)k, (10)

where

p0(n)=1,p1(n)=0,p2(n)=n,p3(n)=2n (11)

pk(n)=(1k)pk1(n)+npk2(n),k3. (12)

Computing the derivatives f(k)(z1) for k=0,1,2 give

f(z1)=sech(z1+δ), (13)

f(1)(z1)=tanh(z1+δ)sech(z1+δ), (14)

f(2)(z1)=sech(z1+δ)(12sech2(z1+δ)). (15)

Expanding the sum in Eq. (10) and keeping only the first three terms yield

Tn(nz+1;λ)=(nz)nλ[u(z1)0!+u(1)(z1)1!p1(n)nz+u(2)(z1)2!p2(n)(nz)2+O(1n2)]=nnzzλ{sech(1z+δ)sech(1z+δ)(12sech2(1z+δ))2nz2+O(1n2)}=nnzn(sech(1z+δ))λ{112sech2(1z+δ)2nz2+O(1n2)}.

The accuracy of the asymptotic formula obtained in Eq. (5) is shown in Fig. 1.

To enlarge the region of validity of Eq. (5) and obtain an asymptotic expansion valid in a larger region, the following theorem will be utilized.

Theorem 2.2. [9] The polynomials

Pn(z)=n!2πiCf(w)ewzdwwn+1, (16)

where f(w) is analytic at the origin with simple poles w1,w2, (and respective residues r1,r2,), can be represented, for each integer m>0, as

Pn(nz)=k=1mrkewknzwkn+1Γ(n+1,wknz)+(nz)nk=0f(k)(z1)+hm(k)(z1)k!pk(n)(nz)k, (17)

that is valid for zC,|z1|<|z1wj|, for all j=m+1,m+2,, where the polynomials pk(n) are given in Eq. (12) and hm(k) is the kth derivative of the function

hm(w)=l=1mrlwwl,

where the residues wl are ordered by increasing modulus |wl||wl+1|. Each term of the finite sum in the above equation equals n!rk/wkn+1 multiplied by the Taylor polynomial of degree n in z=0 of ewknz.

The second asymptotic formula for Tn(nz+1;λ) with enlarged region of validity is given in the following theorem.

Figure 1: Solid lines represent Tn(nx+1;λ) for several values of n, whereas dashed lines represent the right-hand side of (5) with z=x, both normalized by the factor (1+|xα|n)1 where we choose α=0.2 (a) n=7 and λ=4 (b) n=14 and λ=9

Theorem 2.3. Let zC\{0} such that |z2±(2k+1)πi2δ|>2(2k+1)π+2δ for k=0,1,2,,m1 and λC{0}. Then, as n,

Tn(nz+1;λ)=2n+1i(λ)nz+1k=0m1(1)k[e(2k+1)πinz2[(2k+1)πi2δ]n+1Γ(n+1,[(2k+1)πi2δ]nz)+e(2k+1)πinz2[(2k+1)πi2δ]n+1Γ(n+1,[(2k+1)πi2δ]nz)]+(nz)nλ{sech(1z+δ)+k=0m1(1)k+14(2k+1)π4(1z+δ)2+(2k+1)2π2sech(1z+δ)(12sech2(1z+δ))2nz2k=0m1(1)k16(2k+1)π[(2k+1)2π212(1z+δ)2]nz2{4(1z+δ)2+(2k+1)2π2}3+O(1n2)}. (18)

Proof. We start by computing the residues rl for the Apostol-tangent polynomials. Observe that the case is the function f(w)=sech(w+δ)=1cosh(w+δ)=p(w)q(w) which has simple poles at wl=±(2l+1)πi2δ,l=0,1,2,,m1. Thus, the corresponding residues are

rl=p(wl)q(wl)=1sinh(wl+δ), (19)

where

sinh(wl+δ)=sinh((l+12)πi)=isinh(lπ+π2)=(1)li. (20)

On the other hand, for wl=(2l+1)πi2δ,l=0,1,2,,m1,

sinh(wl+δ)=sinh((l+12)πi)=isinh(lπ+π2)=(1)l+1. (21)

Thus, the residues rl,l=0,1,2,m1 of the function f(w) are

rl=1(1)liand rl=1(1)l+1i=(1)l. (22)

Next, the derivatives of hm(w) at the saddle point z1 will be computed. With the simple poles wl=(2l+1)πi2δ and w1=(2l+1)πi2δ of the function f(w), an expression for hm(w) is obtained as follows:

hm(w)=l=0m1rlwwll=0m1rlwwl=l=0m1(1)l+1iw[(2l+1)πi2δ]l=0m1(1)liw[(2l+1)πi2δ]=l=0m1(1)li(1[w+δ](2l+1)πi2)+1[w+δ]+(2l+1)πi2))=l=0m1(1)li((2l+1)πi[w+δ]2+(2l+1)2π24)=l=0m1(1)l+14(2l+1)π4(w+δ)2+(2l+1)2π2.

Computing the derivatives yields

hm(1)(w)=l=0m1(1)l32(2l+1)π[w+δ]{4(w+δ)2+(2l+1)2π2}2, (23)

hm(2)(w)=l=0m1(1)l32(2l+1)π[(2l+1)2π212(w+δ)2]{4(w+δ)2+(2l+1)2π2}3. (24)

hm(0)(z1)=l=0m1(1)l+14(2l+1)π4(1z+δ)2+(2l+1)2π2, (25)

hm(1)(z1)=l=0m1(1)l32(2l+1)π(1z+δ){4(1z+δ)2+(2l+1)2π2}2, (26)

hm(2)(z1)=l=0m1(1)l32(2l+1)π((2l+1)2π212(1z+δ)2){4(1z+δ)2+(2l+1)2π2}3. (27)

From Theorem 2.2,

Tn(nz+1;λ)=(λ)12rkewknzwkn+1Γ(n+1,wknz)+(nz)nλk=0f(k)(z1)+hm(k)(z1)k!Pk(n)(nz)k. (28)

Keeping only the first three terms of the infinite sum in (28) and using Pk(n) in Eq. (11), f(k)(z1) given in Eqs. (13)(15) and hm(k)(z1) given Eqs. (25)(27) with wk=±(2k+1)πi2δ,rk=(1)k+1iλ and (1)kiλ,k=0,1,,m1, the desired asymptotic formula is obtained.

The accuracy of the asymptotic formula obtained in Eq. (18) is shown in Fig. 2. The accuracy of the approximation in the oscillatory region is better that that the of the formula in Eq. (5).

Figure 2: Solid lines represent Tn(nx+1;λ) for several values of n, whereas dashed lines represent the right-hand side of Eq. (18) with zx, both normalized by the factor (1+|xα|n)1 where we choose α=0.2. (a) n=7 and λ=4 (b) n=14 and λ=9

Remark 2.4. Taking λ=1, Theorem 2.1 and Theorem 2.3, respectively, will give uniform approximationformula and an asypmtotic expansion with enlarged region of validity which are same formulas as those obtained in [17] for the tangent polynomials.

3  Approximation of Higher-Order Apostol-Tangent Polynomials

Higher-order Apostol-tangent polynomials are defined by the generating function

(2λe2w+1)mezw=n=0Tnm(z;λ)wnn!,|w|<π2when λ=1and |w|<π when λ1:λϵC\{0} (29)

In this section, it is shown that the method in Section 2 can be extended to obtain asymptotic expansion of the Apostol-tangent polynomials of order m.

Theorem 3.1 For λϵC\{0}, and zϵC\{0} such that |Imz1|<πArgλ2 and |z1|<|z1(πi2δ)| and n,m1, the Apostol-tangent polynomials of order m satisfy

Tnm(nz+m;λ)=nnznsechm(z1+δ)(λ)m{1m(m(m+1)sech2(z1+δ))2nz2+O(1n2)}, (30)

when δ=(logλ)/2 and the logarithm is taken to be the principal branch.

Proof. Applying the Cauchy Integral Formula to Eq. (29),

Tnm(z;λ)=n!2πiC2mezw(eIn(λ)+2w+1)mdwwn+1, (31)

where C is a circle about 0 with radius less than |πIn(λ)|2. With (2e(δ+w))m(cosh(w+δ))m=(e2δ+2w+1)m, it follows from Eq. (31) that

Tnm(z;λ)=n!2πi(λ)mCf(w)ezwewmdwwn+1 (32)

where λm=(elog(λ)/2)m=eδm and f(w)=1coshm(w+δ). The function f(w) is a meromorphic function with poles of order m at the zeros of coshm(w+δ) which are given by wj=(2j+1)πi2δ,j=0,±1,±2,. It follows that by taking znz an letting nz with fixed z,

Tnm(nz+m;λ)=n!2πi(λ)mCf(w)en(zwlogw)dwwn. (33)

Likewise, the approximations of Tnm(nz+m;λ) can be obtained by expanding f(w) around the saddle point w=z1. Using Lemma 1, Lemma 2, and Theorem 1 of [9],

Tnm(nz+m;λ)=(nz)n(λ)mk=0f(k)(z1)k!Pk(n)(nz)k, (34)

where Pk(n) are the polynomials given in Eqs. (11) and (12). The derivative of f(k)(z1) for k=0,1,2 are given by

f(0)(z1)=f(z1)=sechm(z1+δ), (35)

f(1)(z1)=mtanh(z1+δ)sechm(z1+δ), (36)

f(2)(z1)=m sechm(z1+δ)(m(m+1)sech2(z1+δ)). (37)

Expanding the sum in (34) and keeping only the first three terms give

Tnm(nz+m;λ)=(nz)n(λ)m[v(z1)0!+v(1)(z1)1!p1(n)nz+v(2)(z1)2!p2(n)(nz)2+O(1n2)]=nnzn(λ)m{sechm(1z+δ)msechm(1z+δ)(m(m+1)sech2(1z+δ))2nz2+O(1n2)}=nnzn(sechm(1z+δ))(λ)m{1m(m(m+1)sech2(1z+δ))2nz2+O(1n2)}.

The accuracy of the asymptotic formula obtained in Eq. (30) is shown in Fig. 3.

Figure 3: Solid lines represent Tnm(nx+m;λ) for several values of n and m, whereas dashed lines represent the right-hand side of Eq. (30) with zx, both normalized by the factor (1+|xα|n)1 where we choose α=0.2 (a) m=7,n=10 and λ=5 (b) m=8,n=7 and λ=6

Corollary 3.2. For zC\{0} such that |Imz1|<π2,|z1|<|z1πi2| and n,m1,

Tnm(nz+m)=nnznsechm(z1){1m(m(m+1)sech2(z1+δ))2nz2+O(1/n2)}. (38)

Proof. This follows from Theorem 3.1 by taking λ=1. To enlarge the region of validity of Eq. (30) and obtain an asymptotic expansion valid in a larger region the following theorem will be used.

Theorem 3.3. For λC\{0},mZ+ and zC such that |z1|<|z1wk| for all k=l+1,l+2,, the Apostol-tangent polynomials of order m satisfy

Tnm(nz+m;λ)=λm2{k=1lj1mewknzrkj[s=0n(ns)(1)(j1)j1s(wk)--(j1+s)((ns)!wkns+1Γ(ns+1,wknz)wkns+1)+(1)jjnwkj+n]+(nz)nk=0f(k)(z1)hl(k)(z1)k!Pk(n)(nz)k}, (39)

where the polynomisals pk(n) are given in Eq. (12) hl(k) is the kth derivative of the function hl(w) given by Eq. (49) and

j=1mrkj(wwk)j

Are the given principal parts of the Laurent series corresponding to the poles wk, where the entire function h(z) is determined by f(z).

Proof. With f(w)=coshm(w+δ), it follows from Mittag-Leffler’s Theorem (see [18,19]) that

f(w)=k=1l[j=1mrkj(wwk)j+qk(w)]+g(w)=k=1lj=1mrkj(wwk)j+k=1lqk(w)+g(w)=k=1lj=1mrkj(wwk)j+fl(w), (40)

where

fl(w)=k=1lqk(w)+g(w),

qk(w) is a polynomial of w,rkj are residues of f(w) at wk,k=1,2,,l. Note that inside the disk |w|<|wm+1|,fl(w) has no poles.

Recall from Eq. (33),

Tnm(nz+m;λ)=1λm2n!2πiCf(w)ewnzdwwn+1, (41)

where f(w)=1/coshm(w+δ)=sechm(w+δ). Substituting Eq. (40) to Eq. (41) gives

Tnm(nz+m;λ)=1λm2n!2πiC(k=1lj=1mrkj(wwk)j+fl(w))ewnzdwwn+1=λm2n!2πiCk=1lj=1mrkj(wwk)jewnzdwwn+1+λm2n!2πiCfl(w)ewnzdwwn+1.| (42)

Let

Xln,m(z)=λm2n!2πiCfl(w)ewnzdwwn+1, (43)

Yln,m(z)=λm2n!2πiCk=1lj=1mrkj(wwk)jewnzdwwn+1=λm2k=1lj=1mn!2πiCrkj(wwk)jewnzdwwn+1. (44)

Repeating the process to prove Theorem 3.1 where f(w) there is replaced by fl(w), we have

Xln,m(z)=λm2n!2πiCfl(w)en(wzlogw)dww. (45)

Assume that z1 is not a pole of fl(w). We can expand fl(w) around the saddle point. That is

fl(w)=k=0fl(k)(z1)k!(wz1)k,|wz1|<r (46)

where r is the distance from z1 to the nearest singularity of fl(w). Substitute Eq. (46) to Eq. (43)

Xln,m(z)=λm2n!2πiCk=0fl(k)(z1)k!(wz1)kewnzdwwn+1=λm2(nz)nk=0fl(k)(z1)k!1(nz)nn!2πiC(wz1)kewnzdwwn+1=λm2(nz)nk=0fl(k)(z1)k!uk(n,z),

where

uk(n,z)=1(nz)nn!2πiC(wz1)kewnzdwwn+1.

It follows from Lemma 1 [9] that

uk(n,z)=pk(n)(nz)k, (47)

where pk(n) are the polynomials in Eqs. (11) and (12). Thus,

Xln,m(z)=λm2(nz)nk=0fl(k)(z1)k!pk(n)(nz)k, (48)

valid for mZ+,zC\{0} such that |z1|<|z1wj| for j=l+1,l+2, given the first 2l poles of f(w). From Eq. (40),

fl(w)=f(w)k=1lj=1mrkj(wwk)j.

This gives

fl(k)(w)=fk(w)hl(k)(w),

where

hl(w)=k=1lj=1mrkj(wwk)j. (49)

The expansion of Xln,m(z) in Eq. (48) becomes

Xln,m(z)=λm2(nz)nk=0fl(k)(z1)hl(k)(z1)k!pk(n)(nz)k,| (50)

valid for |z1|<|z1wj|,j=l+1,l+2, and z0. This range of validity is larger than that in Theorem 2.1 and Theorem 3.1.

On the other hand, to obtain an expansion for Yln,m(z), shift the integration contour in Eq. (44) by w=wk+t. Then dw=dt and

Yln,m(z)=λm2k=1lj=1mn!2πiCrkjtje(wk+t)nzdt(wk+t)n+1=λm2k=1lj=1mewknzrkjn!2πiCetnztjdt(wk+t)n+1, (51)

where C:t=wk+Reiθ,π<θπ is a circle with radius R and center at wk. Note that 0 is not on the wks. This C is the image of C:w=Reiθ through the shift w=wk+t. Note that

0zetxdx=etxt|z0=etzt1t,

giving

etzt=0zetxdx+1t.

Similarly,

02etxtj1dx=etxtj|z0=etztj1t.

so that

etztj=0zetxtj1+1tj.

It follows that

etnztj=0nzetxtj1+1tj.

Then Eq. (51) becomes

Yn,ml(z)=λm2k=1lj=1mewknzrkjn!2πiC(0nzetxtj1dx+1tj)dt(wk+t)n+1. (52)

First, we compute

n!2πiCetxtj1dt(wk+t)n+1=n!2πiCetxt(j1)dt(wk+t)n+1=dndtn(etxt(j1))|t=wk. (53)

Note that when j=1, the RHS of Eq. (53) is xn. For j1, we use the Leibniz rule for differentiation.

This gives

dndtn(etxt(j1))=s=0n(ns)xnsetxdsdtst(j1)|t=wk. (54)

It can be computed that

dsdtst(j1)=(1)s(j1)j(j+1)(j1+(s1))t(j1+s)=(1)sj1st(j1+s),

where j1s denotes the rising factorial of j1 with increment s. Then Eq. (54) becomes

dndtn(etxt(j1))=s=0n(ns)xnsewkx(1)sj1s(wk)(j1+s)=s=0n(ns)xnsewkx(1)(j1)j1s(wk)(j1+s).

Thus, Eq. (53) can be written

n!2πiCetxtj1dt(wk+t)n+1=s=0n(ns)xnsewkx(1)(j1)j1s(wk)(j1+s), (55)

while

n!2πiCtjdt(wk+t)n+1=dndtn(tj)|t=wk=(1)njn(wk)jn=(1)jjn(wk)(j+n)=(1)jjnwkj+n. (56)

Note also that

0nzxnsewkxdx=0nztnsewkxdt.

Now the incomplete gamma function

Γ(a,z)=zetta1dt,

gives

Γ(ns+1,wkz)=wkzettnsdt.

Let η=twk. Then t=ηwk and wkdη=dt. Moreover, t=η=;t=wkzη=z.

Consequently,

Γ(ns+1,wkz)=zewkη(wkη)ηswkdηΓ(ns+1,wkz)wkns+1=0ewkηηnsdη=0ewkηηnsdn0zewkηηnsdη

or

0zewkηηnsdη=0ewkηηnsdηΓ(ns+1.wkz)wkns+1.

Take note znz. Then

0nzewkηηnsdη=0ewkηηnsdηΓ(ns+1,wknz)wkns+1. (57)

Substituting Eqs. (55) and (56) to Eq. (52) yields

Yln,m(z)=λm2k=1lj=1mewknzrkj[(0nzs=0n(ns)xnsewkx(1)(j1)j1s(wk)(j1+s))dx+(1)jjnwkj+n]=λm2k=1lj=1mewknzrkj[s=0n(ns)(1)(j1)j1s(wk)(j1+s)(0nzxnsewkx)dx]+(1)jjnwkj+n]. (58)

Using Eq. (57) into Eq. (58) we have

Yln,m(z)=λm2k=1lj=1mewknzrkj[s=0n(ns)(1)(j1)j1s(wk)(j1+s)(0ewkttnsdtΓ(ns+1,wknz)wkns+1)+(1)jjnwkj+n]. (59)

Since

0tnsewktdt=(ns)!wkns+1,ns, (60)

we can write Eq. (59) as follows:

Yln,m(z)=λm2k=1lj=1mewknzrkj[s=0n(ns)(1)(j1)j1s(wk)(j1+s)((ns)!wkns+1Γ(ns+1,wknz)wkns+1)+(1)jjnwkj+n]. (61)

Substituting Eqs. (52) and (61) into Eq. (44) we have

Tnm(nz+m;λ)=λm2{k=1lj=1mewknzrkj[s=0n(ns)(1)(j1)j1s(wk)(j1+s)((ns)!wkns+1Γ(ns+1,wknz)wkns+1)+(1)jjnwkj+n]+(nz)nk=0f(k)(z1)hl(k)(z1)k!pk(n)(nz)k}

The comparison of the accuracy of the asymptotic formula obtained in Eq. (30) and Eq. (39) is shown in Fig. 4.

Figure 4: Solid lines in (a) and (b) represent Tmn(nx+m;A) for n=3,m=3, whereas dashed lines in (a) and (b) represent the right hand side of Eqs. (30) and (39), respectively, with zx, both normalized by the factor (1+|xa|n)1 where we choose a=0.5 (a) n=3,m=3 and λ=3 (b) n=3,m=3 and λ=3

valid for mZ+,zC\{0} such that |z1|<|z1--wk| for all k=l+1,l+2,, where the polynomials pk(n) are given in Eq. (12) and hl(k) is the kth derivative of hl(w) given by Eq. (49).

Note that if m=1, Eq. (61) reduces to

Yln(z)=λ12(k=1lewknzrkjwkn+1Γ(n+1,wknz)),

since 10=1 and 01=0. This is exactly the first term Eq. (28).

Corollary 3.4. For zC\{0} such that |z1|<|z1--wk| for all k=l+1,l+2,,m,nZ+, the tangent polynomials of order m satisfy,

Tnm(nz+m)=k=1lj=1mewknzrkj[s=0n(ns)(1)(j1)j1s(wk)(j1+s)((ns)!wkns+1Γ(ns+1,wknz)wkns+1)+(1)jjnwkj+n]+(nz)nk=0f(k)(z1)hl(k)(z1)k!pk(n)(nz)k, (62)

where wk=(2k+1)πi2, the polynomials pk(n) are given in Eq. (12), hl(k) is the kth derivative of the function hl(w) given by Eq. (49) and

j=1mrkj(wwk)j

are the given principal parts of the Laurent series corresponding to the poles wk.

Proof. This follows from Theorem 3.3 by taking λ=1.

4  Conclusion

The saddle-point method and the use of hyperbolic functions are shown to give good approximations to the Apostol-tangent polynomials. Uniform approximations of the Apostol-tangent polynomials and of higher-order Apostol-tangent polynomials are derived. Moreover, approximation formulas with larger region of validity are obtained. The computations to derive the approximation formulas with larger region of validity for the case of Apostol-tangent polynomials of order m are quite tedious and the formulas obtained are original. Corollaries are being stated to explicitly give the corresponding formulas for the special case λ=1 and can be used as check formulas of the general case. It will be interesting also to investigate if the methods used in the paper will be applicable to the Apostol-tangent-Bernoulli polynomials and Apostol-tangent-Genocchi polynomials of higher order.

For future research work, one may try to investigate more properties of Apostol-tangent and higher order Apostol-tangent polynomials and establish q-analogues of these polynomials (see [2022]).

Funding Statement: This research is funded by Cebu Normal University through its Research Institute for Computational Mathematics and Physics (RICMP).

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to report regarding the present study.

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