TY - EJOU
AU - Waini, Iskandar
AU - Ishak, Anuar
AU - Pop, Ioan
TI - Hybrid Nanofluid Flow with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions
T2 - Computers, Materials \& Continua
PY - 2021
VL - 68
IS - 3
SN - 1546-2226
AB - This study examines the stagnation point flow over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a hybrid nanofluid with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. The hybrid nanofluid consists of copper (Cu) and alumina (Al_{2}O_{3}) nanoparticles which are added into water to form Cu-Al_{2}O_{3}/water hybrid nanofluid. The similarity equations are obtained using a similarity transformation. Then, the function bvp4c in MATLAB is utilised to obtain the numerical results. The dual solutions are found for limited values of the stretching/shrinking parameter. Also, the turning point arises in the shrinking region (λ < 0). Besides, the presence of hybrid nanoparticles enhances the heat transfer rate, skin friction coefficient, and the concentration gradient. In addition, the concentration gradient is intensified with the heterogeneous reaction but the effect is opposite for the homogeneous reaction. Furthermore, the velocity and the concentration increase, whereas the temperature decreases for higher compositions of hybrid nanoparticles. Moreover, the concentration decreases for larger values of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. It is consistent with the fact that higher reaction rate cause a reduction in the rate of diffusion. However, the velocity and the temperature are not affected by these parameters. From these observations, it can be concluded that the effect of the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions is dominant on the concentration profiles. Two solutions are obtained for a single value of parameter. The temporal stability analysis shows that only one of these solutions is stable and thus physically reliable over time.
KW - Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions; stagnation point; hybrid nanofluid; shrinking sheet; dual solutions; stability analysis
DO - 10.32604/cmc.2021.017643