TY - EJOU
AU - Rehman, Shafiqur
AU - Nuha, Hilal H.
AU - Shaikhi, Ali Al
AU - Akbar, Satria
AU - Mohandes, Mohamed
TI - Improving Performance of Recurrent Neural Networks Using Simulated Annealing for Vertical Wind Speed Estimation
T2 - Energy Engineering
PY - 2023
VL - 120
IS - 4
SN - 1546-0118
AB - An accurate vertical wind speed (WS) data estimation is required to determine the potential for wind farm installation. In general, the vertical extrapolation of WS at different heights must consider different parameters from different locations, such as wind shear coefficient, roughness length, and atmospheric conditions. The novelty presented in this article is the introduction of two steps optimization for the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) model to estimate WS at different heights using measurements from lower heights. The first optimization of the RNN is performed to minimize a differentiable cost function, namely, mean squared error (MSE), using the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. Secondly, the RNN is optimized to reduce a non-differentiable cost function using simulated annealing (RNN-SA), namely mean absolute error (MAE). Estimation of WS vertically at 50 m height is done by training RNN-SA with the actual WS data a 10–40 m heights. The estimated WS at height of 50 m and the measured WS at 10–40 heights are further used to train RNN-SA to obtain WS at 60 m height. This procedure is repeated continuously until the WS is estimated at a height of 180 m. The RNN-SA performance is compared with the standard RNN, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and state of the art methods like convolutional neural networks (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) networks to extrapolate the WS vertically. The estimated values are also compared with real WS dataset acquired using LiDAR and tested using four error metrics namely, mean squared error (MSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean bias error (MBE), and coefficient of determination (). The numerical experimental results show that the MSE values between the estimated and actual WS at 180 m height for the RNN-SA, RNN, MLP, and SVM methods are found to be 2.09, 2.12, 2.37, and 2.63, respectively.
KW - Vertical wind speed estimation; recurrent neural networks; simulated annealing; multilayer perceptron; support vector machine
DO - 10.32604/ee.2023.026185