Home / Journals / PHYTON / Online First / doi:10.32604/phyton.2022.022013

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REVIEW

Papaya Ring Spot Virus: An Understanding of a Severe Positive-Sense Single Stranded RNA Viral Disease and Its Management

Muhammad Umer1, Mustansar Mubeen2, Yasir Iftikhar2,*, Haider Ali3, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye4, Rafia Asghar5, Mazhar Abbas6, Malik Abdul Rehman7, Ernesto A. Moya-Elizondo8, Yuejun He1,*
1 Institute for Forest Resources and Environment of Guizhou and Forestry College, Research Centre of Forest Ecology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China
2 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan
3 College of Bioscience, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B152TT, UK
4 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan
5 Department of Plant Pathology, PMAS University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, 43490, Pakistan
6 Department of Agriculture and Agribusiness Management University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan
7 Citrus Research Institute, Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan
8 Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán, 3780000, Chile
* Corresponding Authors: Yuejun He. Email: hyj1358@163.com; Yasir Iftikhar. Email: yasir.iftikhar@uos.edu.pk

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2022.022013

Received 16 February 2022; Accepted 30 March 2022; Published online 03 May 2022

Abstract

Viral diseases have been studied in-depth for reducing quality, yield, health and longevity of the fruit, to highlight the economic losses. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses are more devastating among all viruses that infect fruit trees. One of the best examples is papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). It belongs to the genus Potyvirus and it is limited to cause diseases on the family Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Caricaceae. This virus has a serious threat to the production of papaya, which is famous for its high nutritional and pharmaceutical values. The plant parts such as leaves, latex, seeds, fruits, bark, peel and roots may contain the biological compound that can be isolated and used in pharmaceutical industries as a disease control. Viral disease symptoms consist of vein clearing and yellowing of young leaves. Distinctive ring spot patterns with concentric rings and spots on fruit reduce its quality and taste. The virus has two major strains P and W. The former cause disease in papaya while the later one in papaya. Virion comprises 94.4% protein, including a 36 kDa coat protein which is a component responsible for a non-persistent transmission through aphids, and 5.5% nucleic acid. Cross protection, development of transgenic crops, exploring the resistant sources and induction of pathogen derived resistance have been recorded as effective management of PRSV. Along with these practices reduced aphid population through insecticides and plant extracts have been found ecofriendly approaches to minimize the disease incidence. Adoption of transgenic crops is a big challenge for the success of disease resistant papaya crops. The aim of this review is to understand the genomic nature of PRSV, detection methods and the different advanced control methods. This review article will be helpful in developing the best management strategies for controlling PRSV.

Keywords

Papaya; obligate parasite; +ssRNA; PRSV; aphid; genomic characterization and functions
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