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  • Open Access


    Nanocelluloses from Eucalyptus Wood Pulp: A Morphological Comparison

    Antonio J. F. Carvalho

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 118-122, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634108

    Abstract Two nanocelluloses from eucalyptus, namely microfi brillated cellulose (MFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), were prepared and compared by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The MFC fi bers are 20–30 nm wide and are composed of very homogeneous bundles of aligned regular elementary fi brils of 3–5 nm diameter. They show long straight portions and short fl exible zones, attributed to crystalline and amorphous zones, respectively. The needle-shaped CNC was approximately 200 nm long and 10 nm wide in the wider portion. A model for the MFC structure, whose fl exible zones are formed by alignment of the amorphous portion of the… More >

  • Open Access


    Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals Grafted with Organic Acid Chloride of Different Sizes

    Aparecido Junior de Menezes1,3,*, Elson Longo2, Fábio Lima Leite1, Alain Dufresne3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.4, pp. 306-313, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634121

    Abstract In the work presented in this article surface chemical modifi cation was applied to ramie cellulose nanocrystals by grafting organic acid chlorides presenting different lengths of the aliphatic chain. The objective of this surface chemical treatment was to enhance the nonpolar nature of the grafted nanocrystals and improve their dispersibility in a nonpolar polymeric matrix. The occurrence of the chemical modifi cation was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the degree of crystallinity by X-ray diffraction, and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy with fi eld emission gun (FEG-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The morphology and crystallinity provided… More >

  • Open Access


    Cellulose Nanocrystal from Washingtonia Fibre and Its Characterization

    Mohammad Jawaid1, Lau Kia Kian1, Hassan Fouad2, Ramzi Khiari3,4,5,*, Othman Y. Alothman6, Mohamed Hashem7

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1459-1470, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018415

    Abstract Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is a biomaterial derived from plant lignocellulosic components, widely applied in various industrial fields. Concurrently, with the growth of awareness in developing green nanomaterial, the explored Washingtonia fibre could be alternative biomass for obtaining CNC products. In the present work, different acid concentrations of 5%, 15%, and 25% hydrochloric solutions were employed to produce CNCs from Washingtonia fibre. With the chemical treatments, the yield of the CNC product was successfully retained at 21.6%−25.1%. Individually separated and needle-shaped CNC particles could be observed under the microscopic viewing with the increased acid concentrations. From elemental analysis, a relatively pure… More > Graphic Abstract

    Cellulose Nanocrystal from <i>Washingtonia</i> Fibre and Its Characterization

  • Open Access


    Effect of Mixing Strategy on the Structure-Properties of the PLA/PBAT Blends Incorporated with CNC

    Deniz Sema Sarul1, Dogan Arslan2, Emre Vatansever1, Yusuf Kahraman2, Ali Durmus3, Reza Salehiyan4, Mohammadreza Nofar1,2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 149-164, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017003

    Abstract Polylactide (PLA)/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blend nanocomposites including 3 wt% of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared by melt compounding method in a twin-screw extruder and an internal mixer. Blend nanocomposites were formulated by diluting three different masterbatches prepared by solution casting method that contained 7 wt% of CNC. These masterbatches were: (m1) PLA/PBAT/CNC masterbatch; (m2) PLA/CNC masterbatch; and (m3) PBAT/CNC masterbatch. These were to explore how different preparation methods affect the dispersion and localization of CNC and hence the properties of PLA/PBAT/CNC blend nanocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the structural changes of the blends. Rheological properties… More >

  • Open Access


    The Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals Modified with Succinic Anhydride under the Microwave Irradiation for Preparation of Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

    Ewa Szefer*, Agnieszka Leszczyńska, Edyta Hebda, Krzysztof Pielichowski

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1127-1142, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014584

    Abstract The aim of this work was to use cellulose nanocrystals that were obtained by hydrolysis in phosphoric acid solution and further modified with succinic anhydride in the microwave field for PLA reinforcement. A series of all-bionanocomposites containing unmodified and surface modified cellulose nanocrystals with CNC content in the range of 1–3 %w.t. were obtained by melt blending and tested by XRD, SEM, DSC and DMA to investigate the effect of surface esterification of CNCs on the structure, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties of bionanocomposites, as well as phase transitions of PLA in the presence of cellulosic nanofiller. DMA investigations showed the… More > Graphic Abstract

    The Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals Modified with Succinic Anhydride under the Microwave Irradiation for Preparation of Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

  • Open Access


    Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethane/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Membrane from Recycling Waste Paper

    Xing Zhou1,*, Xin Zhang1, Dong Wang1, Changqing Fang1,*, Wanqing Lei1, Zhigang Huang2, Yonghua Song1, Xinyu He1, Yingwei Huang1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 631-645, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.010176

    Abstract Cellulose plays a key role in abundant organic natural materials meeting the increasing demand for green and biocompatible products. The highly crystalline nanoscale component of cellulose nanocrystals has recently attracted great attention due to the versatile performance as filler or matrix in producing functional materials. In this work, we prepared the waterborne polyurethane via a prepolymer process, and obtained cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals from waste paper via a facile acid hydrolysis process. After that, the cellulose nanocrystals were assembled into film and mixed with polyurethane to prepare flexible polyurethane/cellulose nanocrystals composite membrane with different soaking time. The correlation between the… More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation of Dicarboxyl Cellulose Nanocrystals from Agricultural Wastes by Sequential Periodate-Chlorite Oxidation

    Xiaozheng Sun*, Qiang He, Yu Yang

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 447-460, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09671

    Abstract Agricultural waste straw is the renewable resource with the highest annual yield in the world. In value-added applications of agricultural waste, dicarboxyl cellulose nanocrystals (DCCs) are prepared from rice, wheat, and corn straw by sequential periodate-chlorite oxidation. In this study, DCCs from rice, wheat, and corn straw were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The carboxyl content of the DCCs was also investigated. XRD results show that the crystallinity index decreased after sequential periodate-chlorite oxidation; however, the cellulose I structure was maintained. TEM results show that rod-shaped DCCs… More >

  • Open Access


    Composite Biomaterials Based on Poly(L-Lactic Acid) and Functionalized Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Mariia Stepanova1, Ilia Averianov1, Olga Solomakha1, Natalia Zabolotnykh2, Iosif Gofman1, Mikhail Serdobintsev2, Tatiana Vinogradova2, Viktor Korzhikov-Vlakh1,3, Evgenia Korzhikova-Vlakh1,3,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 383-395, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09206

    Abstract The biocomposite films were prepared from poly(L-lactic acid) and cellulose nanocrystals. To improve interfacial compatibility of hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystals with hydrophobic matrix polymer as well as to provide the osteoconductive properties, cellulose was functionalized with poly(glutamic acid). The modified cellulose nanocrystals were better distributed and less aggregated within the matrix, which was testified by scanning electron, optical and polarized light microscopy. According to mechanical tests, composites filled with nanocrystals modified with PGlu demonstrated higher values of Young’s modulus, elongation at break and tensile strength. Incubation of composite materials in model buffer solutions for 30 weeks followed with staining of Ca2+More >

  • Open Access


    Isolation of Thermally Stable Cellulose Nanocrystals from Spent Coffee Grounds via Phosphoric Acid Hydrolysis

    Brody A. Frost, E. Johan Foster*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 187-203, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.07940

    Abstract As the world's population exponentially grows, so does the need for the production of food, with cereal production growing annually from an estimated 1.0 billion to 2.5 billion tons within the last few decades. This rapid growth in food production results in an ever increasing amount of agricultural wastes, of which already occupies nearly 50% of the total landfill area. For example, is the billions of dry tons of cellulose-containing spent coffee grounds disposed in landfills annually. This paper seeks to provide a method for isolating cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from spent coffee grounds, in order to recycle and utilize the… More >

  • Open Access


    Adsorption Behavior of Reducing End-Modified Cellulose Nanocrystals: A Kinetic Study Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Maud Chemin, Céline Moreau, Bernard Cathala, Ana Villares*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 29-43, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.07850

    Abstract In this work, we studied the adsorption of modified cellulose nanocrystals onto solid surfaces by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Cellulose nanocrystals obtained from tunicate (CNC) were modified at reducing end by amidation reactions. Two different functionalities were investigated: a polyamine dendrimer (CNC-NH2), which interacts with gold surface by the amine groups; and a biotin moiety (CNC-Biot), which has a strong affinity for the protein streptavidin (SAV). QCM-D results revealed different adsorption behaviors between modified and unmodified CNCs. Hence, unmodified CNCs covered almost all the surface forming a rigid and flat layer whereas reducing end modified CNCs remained… More >

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