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  • Open Access


    Securing Privacy Using Optimization and Statistical Models in Cognitive Radio Networks

    R. Neelaveni1,*, B. Sridevi2, J. Sivasankari3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.42, No.2, pp. 523-533, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021433

    Abstract Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) are the possible and ideal solution for meeting the spectrum needs of next-generation communication systems. CRN is a promising alternative approach that allows spectrum sharing in many applications. The licensed users considered Primary Users (PU) and unlicensed users as Secondary Users (SU). Time and power consumption on security issues are considered degrading factors in performance for improving the Quality of Service (QoS). Irrespective of using different optimization techniques, the same methodology is to be updated for the task. So that, learning and optimization go hand in hand. It ensures the security in CRN, risk factors in… More >

  • Open Access


    Spectrum Prediction in Cognitive Radio Network Using Machine Learning Techniques

    D. Arivudainambi1, S. Mangairkarasi1,*, K. A. Varun Kumar2

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.32, No.3, pp. 1525-1540, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.020463

    Abstract Cognitive Radio (CR) aims to achieve efficient utilization of scarcely available radio spectrum. Spectrum sensing in CR is a basic process for identifying the existence or absence of primary users. In spectrum sensing, CR users suffer from deep fading effects and it requires additional sensing time to identify the primary user. To overcome these challenges, we frame Spectrum Prediction-Channel Allocation (SP-CA) algorithm which consists of three phases. First, clustering mechanisms to select the spectrum coordinator. Second, Eigenvalue based detection method to expand the sensing accuracy of the secondary user. Third, Bayesian inference approach to reduce the performance degradation of the… More >

  • Open Access


    An Effective Secure MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Bayan Al-Amri1, Gofran Sami2, Wajdi Alhakami1,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.42, No.1, pp. 133-148, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021543

    Abstract The vast revolution in networking is increasing rapidly along with technology advancements, which requires more effort from all cyberspace professionals to cope with the challenges that come with advanced technology privileges and services. Hence, Cognitive Radio Network is one of the promising approaches that permit a dynamic type of smart network for improving the utilization of idle spectrum portions of wireless communications. However, it is vulnerable to security threats and attacks and demands security mechanisms to preserve and protect the cognitive radio networks for ensuring a secure communication environment. This paper presents an effective secure MAC protocol for cognitive radio… More >

  • Open Access


    Optimal Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Based on Butterfly Optimization Algorithm

    Noor Gul1,2, Saeed Ahmed1,3, Atif Elahi4, Su Min Kim1, Junsu Kim1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 369-387, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022260

    Abstract Since the introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT), several researchers have been exploring its productivity to utilize and organize the spectrum assets. Cognitive radio (CR) technology is characterized as the best aspirant for wireless communications to augment IoT competencies. In the CR networks, secondary users (SUs) opportunistically get access to the primary users (PUs) spectrum through spectrum sensing. The multipath issues in the wireless channel can fluster the sensing ability of the individual SUs. Therefore, several cooperative SUs are engaged in cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) to ensure reliable sensing results. In CSS, security is still a major concern for… More >

  • Open Access


    Performance Analysis of Multi-Channel CR Enabled IoT Network with Better Energy Harvesting

    Afiya Kiran1, Ahmad Karim2,*, Yasser Obaid Alharbi3, Diaa Mohammed Uliyan3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 183-197, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021860

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can be termed as an auto-configured and infrastructure-less wireless networks to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure and motion etc. WSNs may comprise thousands of Internet of Things (IoT) devices to sense and collect data from its surrounding, process the data and take an automated and mechanized decision. On the other side the proliferation of these devices will soon cause radio spectrum shortage. So, to facilitate these networks, we integrate Cognitive Radio (CR) functionality in these networks. CR can sense the unutilized spectrum of licensed users and then use these empty… More >

  • Open Access


    An Optimized Algorithm for CR-MIMO Wireless Networks

    Imran Khan1, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi2, Marwa Obayya3, Anwer Mustafa Hilal4, Manar Ahmed Hamza4, Mohammed Rizwanullah4, Fahad Ahmed Al-Zahrani5, Hirofumi Amano6, Samih M. Mostafa7,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 697-715, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021847

    Abstract With the rapid development of wireless communication technology, the spectrum resources are increasingly strained which needs optimal solutions. Cognitive radio (CR) is one of the key technologies to solve this problem. Spectrum sensing not only includes the precise detection of the communication signal of the primary user (PU), but also the precise identification of its modulation type, which can then determine the a priori information such as the PU’ service category, so as to use this information to make the cognitive user (CU) aware to discover and use the idle spectrum more effectively, and improve the spectrum utilization. Spectrum sensing… More >

  • Open Access


    Primary User-Awareness-Based Energy-Efficient Duty-Cycle Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Zilong Jin1,2, Chengbo Zhang1 , Kan Yao3 , Dun Cao4 , Seokhoon Kim5, Yuanfeng Jin6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.3, pp. 5991-6005, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021498


    Cognitive radio devices can utilize the licensed channels in an opportunistic manner to solve the spectrum scarcity issue occurring in the unlicensed spectrum. However, these cognitive radio devices (secondary users) are greatly affected by the original users (primary users) of licensed channels. Cognitive users have to adjust operation parameters frequently to adapt to the dynamic network environment, which causes extra energy consumption. Energy consumption can be reduced by predicting the future activity of primary users. However, the traditional prediction-based algorithms require large historical data to achieve a satisfying precision accuracy which will consume a lot of time and memory space.… More >

  • Open Access


    Optimization of Cognitive Radio System Using Self-Learning Salp Swarm Algorithm

    Nitin Mittal1, Harbinder Singh1, Vikas Mittal2, Shubham Mahajan3, Amit Kant Pandit3, Mehedi Masud4, Mohammed Baz5, Mohamed Abouhawwash6,7,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.2, pp. 3821-3835, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020592

    Abstract Cognitive Radio (CR) has been developed as an enabling technology that allows the unused or underused spectrum to be used dynamically to increase spectral efficiency. To improve the overall performance of the CR system it is extremely important to adapt or reconfigure the system parameters. The Decision Engine is a major module in the CR-based system that not only includes radio monitoring and cognition functions but also responsible for parameter adaptation. As meta-heuristic algorithms offer numerous advantages compared to traditional mathematical approaches, the performance of these algorithms is investigated in order to design an efficient CR system that is able… More >

  • Open Access


    Resource Allocation for Throughput Maximization in Cognitive Radio Network with NOMA

    Xiaoli He1, Yu Song2,3,*, Yu Xue4, Muhammad Owais5, Weijian Yang1, Xinwen Cheng1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.1, pp. 195-212, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.017105

    Abstract Spectrum resources are the precious and limited natural resources. In order to improve the utilization of spectrum resources and maximize the network throughput, this paper studies the resource allocation of the downlink cognitive radio network with non-orthogonal multiple access (CRN-NOMA). NOMA, as the key technology of the fifth-generation communication (5G), can effectively increase the capacity of 5G networks. The optimization problem proposed in this paper aims to maximize the number of secondary users (SUs) accessing the system and the total throughput in the CRN-NOMA. Under the constraints of total power, minimum rate, interference and SINR, CRN-NOMA throughput is maximized by… More >

  • Open Access


    Design of an Efficient Cooperative Spectrum for Intra-Hospital Cognitive Radio Network

    Abhinav Adarsh1, Basant Kumar1, Manoj Gupta2, Arun Kumar2, Aman Singh3,*, Mehedi Masud4, Fahad A. Alraddady5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.69, No.1, pp. 35-49, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.017647

    Abstract This paper presents a new low delay centralized cooperative spectrum sensing method based on dynamic voting rule using multiple threshold level, for indoor hospital environment, where fading and direct path loss both are together responsible for variation in signal strength. In the proposed algorithm, weights of Cognitive Radios (CRs) in terms of assigned vote-count are estimated based on the sensed energy values with respect to multiple fixed threshold levels, so that the direct path loss can be dealt without further increasing the error, which occurs due to fading. For indoor hospital like environment, Rician fading model is more appropriate. Therefore,… More >

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