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  • Open Access


    Bending, Compression and Bonding Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Made from Malaysian Fast-Growing Timbers

    Norshariza Mohamad Bhkari1,2,*, Lum Wei Chen1, Anis Azmi2, Muhammad Shaiful Nordin2, Norman Wong Shew Yam3, Zakiah Ahmad2, Lee Seng Hua4

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 2851-2869, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022326

    Abstract This study investigated the bending, compression as well as the bonding performance of CLT panels made from fast-growing timber species, i.e., Laran (Neolamarckia cadamba) and Batai (Paraserianthes falcataria). The variables studied were timber species (Laran and Batai), layers of lamination (3-layer and 5-layer), loading direction in bending (in-plane and out-of-plane), loading direction in compression (x-, y-, and z-axis) and different treatment conditions for bonding performance test. The desired outputs of this study were bending and compression properties (strength and stiffness) as well as bonding performance (block shear strength, wood failure percentage and delamination value). The bending and compression test were… More >

  • Open Access


    Comparative Study on Various Strength Parameters of Structural Elements Made from Cross-Laminated Timber

    Mohammad Anwar-Us-Saadat1, Janeshka Goonewardena2, Bidur Kafle2, Mahmud Ashraf2,*, Mahbube Subhani2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1575-1606, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018919

    Abstract Cross laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative and environment friendly engineered timber product with superior structural performance. CLT offers strong resistance against both in-plane and out-of-plane loading. Hence, it is widely used as floors, roofs or wall elements. Considerable experimental research on CLT under various loading conditions has been done in the recent past. This article presents a comprehensive review of various design methods to determine basic mechanical properties such as tension, compression and rolling shear strength of CLT with primary focus on Norway spruce. All relevant experimental data available from existing literature were collated and consequently been used to… More >

  • Open Access


    Analysis of Crack Expansion and Morphology of Cross-Laminated Timber Planar Shear Test

    Yujie Huang1, Yifan Zhang1, Zheng Wang1,*, Assima Dauletbe2, Yao Lu1, Zhaoyu Shen1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 849-870, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018515

    Abstract To describe the dynamic cracking process of the CLT vertical layer, the correlation between a load-displacement curve, specimen cracking, and planar shear failure mechanism of the CLT were explored. A three-point bending test and an improved planar shear test are used to evaluate the shear performance of the CLT. In this study, the load-displacement curve is recorded, the experimental part is synchronized with the video, the dynamic process of cracking of the vertical layer is observed and analyzed throughout the test. From the load-displacement curve, the image characteristics of the initial cracking and the sudden increase of the cracking of… More > Graphic Abstract

    Analysis of Crack Expansion and Morphology of Cross-Laminated Timber Planar Shear Test

  • Open Access


    Understanding the Impacts of Plant Capacities and Uncertainties on the Techno-Economic Analysis of Cross-Laminated Timber Production in the Southern U.S.

    Zhenzhen Zhang1, Kai Lan2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 53-73, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017506

    Abstract Understanding the economic feasibility of cross-laminated timber (CLT), an emerging and sustainable alternative to concrete and steel, is critical for the rapid expansion of the mass timber industry. However, previous studies on economic performance of CLT have not fully considered the variations in the feedstock, plant capacities, manufacturing parameters, and capital and operating costs. This study fills this gap by developing a techno-economic analysis of producing CLT panels in the Southern United States. The effects of those variations on minimum selling price (MSP) of CLT panels are explored by Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that, across all the plant… More >

  • Open Access


    Influence of Aspect Ratio on Rolling Shear Properties of Fast-Grown Small Diameter Eucalyptus Lumber

    Tao Gui1, Shichen Cai1, Zhiqiang Wang1,*, Jianhui Zhou2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1053-1066, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.011645

    Abstract Eucalyptus is a major fast-grown species in South China, which has the potential for producing structural wood products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT). Aspect ratio (board width vs. board thickness) of eucalyptus lumbers is small due to the small diameter of fast-grown eucalyptus wood. To evaluate its rolling shear modulus and strength for potential CLT applications, three-layer hybrid CLT shear block specimens with different aspect ratios (2,4,6), were tested by planar shear test method. Digital image correlation (DIC) was employed to measure the rolling shear strain distribution and development during the planar shear tests. The mean values of rolling shear… More >

  • Open Access


    Mechanical Experimental Study on Tensile Bolted Connections of Crosslaminated Timber

    Chenxiao Su, Haibei Xiong*

    Structural Durability & Health Monitoring, Vol.14, No.1, pp. 81-94, 2020, DOI:10.32604/sdhm.2020.08221

    Abstract In order to explore a kind of high-strength, earthquake-resistant, economical and suitable connection, 4 groups of cross-laminated timber wall-to-floor and wall-to-wall bolted connections were tested under monotonic and cyclic loading. The deformation characteristics and failure modes of the cross-laminated timber wall-to-floor and wall-to-wall bolted connections were exploited. Load-slip curves, bearing capacity, yielding point, stiffness and ductility of each group of specimens were analyzed. The test results indicate that the loading process of cross-laminated timber bolted connections under tension can be categorized as five stages, namely the elastic stage, the slip stage, the embedding stage, the yielding stage and the ultimate… More >

  • Open Access


    Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Cross-Laminated Timber with Different Lay-ups Using Japanese Larch

    Yingchun Gong1,#,*, Fenglu Liu2,#, Zhaopeng Tian1, Guofang Wu1, Haiqing Ren1, Cheng Guan2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 941-956, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07354

    Abstract Japanese larch is one of the main plantation tree species in China. A lack of engineered wood products made by Japanese larch , limits its application in wood structures. In this study, based on optimum process para meters, such as pressure (1.2 MPa), adhesive spread rate (200 g/m 2 ) and adhesive (one component polyurethane), the mechanical properties of Japanese larch made cross laminated timber ( with different lay ups were evaluated by means of the static method . Results of this study show ed that variations in lay ups significant ly affected the mechanical properties of CLT. The strength… More >

  • Open Access


    Evaluation of the Out-of-Plane Shear Properties of Cross-Laminated Timber

    Yin Yang1, Xiaoyan Cao1, Zhiqiang Wang1,*, Zhijun Liang1, Jianhui Zhou2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 957-965, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07558

    Abstract The out-of-plane shear properties of cross-laminated timber (CLT) substantially influence the overall mechanical properties of CLT. Various testing methods and theories related to these properties have recently been developed. The effects of the number of layers (three and five layers) and testing method (short-span three- and four-point bending tests) on the out-of-plane shear properties of CLT were evaluated. The out-of-plane shear strength values were calculated based on different theories for comparison. The failure mode in the short-span four-point bending (FPB) method was mainly the rolling shear (RS) failure in the cross layers, indicating that the FPB method was appropriate to… More >

  • Open Access


    Bending and Rolling Shear Properties of Cross-Laminated Timber Fabricated with Canadian Hemlock

    Gengmu Ruan1, Haibei Xiong1,*, Jiawei Chen1

    Structural Durability & Health Monitoring, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 227-246, 2019, DOI:10.32604/sdhm.2019.04743

    Abstract In this paper, bending performance and rolling shear properties of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels made from Canadian hemlock were investigated by varied approaches. Firstly, three groups of bending tests of three-layer CLT panels with different spans were carried out. Different failure modes were obtained: bending failure, rolling shear failure, bonding line failure, local failure of the outer layer and mixed failure mode. Deflection and strain measurements were employed to calculate the global and local modulus of elastic (MOE), compared with the theoretical value. In addition, a modified compression shear testing method was introduced to evaluate the rolling shear strength and… More >

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