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  • Open Access


    Computational Investigation of Hand Foot Mouth Disease Dynamics with Fuzziness

    Dumitru Baleanu1,2,3, Fazal Dayan4, Nauman Ahmed3,5,*, Muhammad Rafiq6,7, Ali Raza3,8, Muhammad Ozair Ahmad5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 4175-4189, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.034868

    Abstract The first major outbreak of the severely complicated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), primarily caused by enterovirus 71, was reported in Taiwan in 1998. HFMD surveillance is needed to assess the spread of HFMD. The parameters we use in mathematical models are usually classical mathematical parameters, called crisp parameters, which are taken for granted. But any biological or physical phenomenon is best explained by uncertainty. To represent a realistic situation in any mathematical model, fuzzy parameters can be very useful. Many articles have been published on how to control and prevent HFMD from the perspective of public health and… More >

  • Open Access


    New Trends in Fuzzy Modeling Through Numerical Techniques

    M. M. Alqarni1, Muhammad Rafiq2, Fazal Dayan3,*, Jan Awrejcewicz4, Nauman Ahmed5, Ali Raza6, Muhammad Ozair Ahmad5, Witold Pawłowski7, Emad E. Mahmoud8

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 6371-6388, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033553

    Abstract Amoebiasis is a parasitic intestinal infection caused by the highly pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. It is spread through person-to-person contact or by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with feces. Its transmission rate depends on the number of cysts present in the environment. The traditional models assumed a homogeneous and contradictory transmission with reality. The heterogeneity of its transmission rate is a significant factor when modeling disease dynamics. The heterogeneity of disease transmission can be described mathematically by introducing fuzzy theory. In this context, a fuzzy SEIR Amoebiasis disease model is considered in this study. The equilibrium analysis and… More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling of Computer Virus Propagation with Fuzzy Parameters

    Reemah M. Alhebshi1, Nauman Ahmed2, Dumitru Baleanu3,4,5, Umbreen Fatima6,*, Fazal Dayan7, Muhammad Rafiq8,9, Ali Raza10, Muhammad Ozair Ahmad2, Emad E. Mahmoud11

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.3, pp. 5663-5678, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033319

    Abstract Typically, a computer has infectivity as soon as it is infected. It is a reality that no antivirus programming can identify and eliminate all kinds of viruses, suggesting that infections would persevere on the Internet. To understand the dynamics of the virus propagation in a better way, a computer virus spread model with fuzzy parameters is presented in this work. It is assumed that all infected computers do not have the same contribution to the virus transmission process and each computer has a different degree of infectivity, which depends on the quantity of virus. Considering this, the parameters and being… More >

  • Open Access


    Numerical Investigation of Malaria Disease Dynamics in Fuzzy Environment

    Fazal Dayan1,*, Dumitru Baleanu2,3,4, Nauman Ahmed5, Jan Awrejcewicz6, Muhammad Rafiq7, Ali Raza8, Muhammad Ozair Ahmad5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.2, pp. 2345-2361, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033261

    Abstract The application of fuzzy theory is vital in all scientific disciplines. The construction of mathematical models with fuzziness is little studied in the literature. With this in mind and for a better understanding of the disease, an SEIR model of malaria transmission with fuzziness is examined in this study by extending a classical model of malaria transmission. The parameters and , being function of the malaria virus load, are considered fuzzy numbers. Three steady states and the reproduction number of the model are analyzed in fuzzy senses. A numerical technique is developed in a fuzzy environment to solve the studied… More >

  • Open Access


    Computational Modeling of Reaction-Diffusion COVID-19 Model Having Isolated Compartment

    Muhammad Shoaib Arif1,2,*, Kamaleldin Abodayeh1, Asad Ejaz2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1719-1743, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022235

    Abstract Cases of COVID-19 and its variant omicron are raised all across the world. The most lethal form and effect of COVID-19 are the omicron version, which has been reported in tens of thousands of cases daily in numerous nations. Following WHO (World health organization) records on 30 December 2021, the cases of COVID-19 were found to be maximum for which boarding individuals were found 1,524,266, active, recovered, and discharge were found to be 82,402 and 34,258,778, respectively. While there were 160,989 active cases, 33,614,434 cured cases, 456,386 total deaths, and 605,885,769 total samples tested. So far, 1,438,322,742 individuals have been… More >

  • Open Access


    Bio-Inspired Numerical Analysis of COVID-19 with Fuzzy Parameters

    F. M. Allehiany1, Fazal Dayan2,3,*, F. F. Al-Harbi4, Nesreen Althobaiti5, Nauman Ahmed2, Muhammad Rafiq6, Ali Raza7, Mawahib Elamin8

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 3213-3229, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.025811

    Abstract Fuzziness or uncertainties arise due to insufficient knowledge, experimental errors, operating conditions and parameters that provide inaccurate information. The concepts of susceptible, infectious and recovered are uncertain due to the different degrees in susceptibility, infectivity and recovery among the individuals of the population. The differences can arise, when the population groups under the consideration having distinct habits, customs and different age groups have different degrees of resistance, etc. More realistic models are needed which consider these different degrees of susceptibility infectivity and recovery of the individuals. In this paper, a Susceptible, Infected and Recovered (SIR) epidemic model with fuzzy parameters… More >

  • Open Access


    A Reliable Stochastic Numerical Analysis for Typhoid Fever Incorporating With Protection Against Infection

    Muhammad Shoaib Arif1,*, Ali Raza1, Muhammad Rafiq2, Mairaj Bibi3, Rabia Fayyaz3, Mehvish Naz3, Umer Javed4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.59, No.3, pp. 787-804, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.04655

    Abstract In this paper, a reliable stochastic numerical analysis for typhoid fever incorporating with protection against infection has been considered. We have compared the solutions of stochastic and deterministic typhoid fever model. It has been shown that the stochastic typhoid fever model is more realistic as compared to the deterministic typhoid fever model. The effect of threshold number T* hold in stochastic typhoid fever model. The proposed framework of the stochastic non-standard finite difference scheme (SNSFD) preserves all dynamical properties like positivity, bounded-ness and dynamical consistency defined by Mickens, R. E. The stochastic numerical simulation of the model showed that increase… More >

  • Open Access


    Numerical Treatment for Stochastic Computer Virus Model

    Ali Raza1, Muhammad Shoaib Arif1,*, Muhammad Rafiq2, Mairaj Bibi3, Muhammad Naveed1, Muhammad Usman Iqbal4, Zubair Butt4, Hafiza Anum Naseem4, Javeria Nawaz Abbasi3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.120, No.2, pp. 445-465, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2019.06454

    Abstract This writing is an attempt to explain a reliable numerical treatment for stochastic computer virus model. We are comparing the solutions of stochastic and deterministic computer virus models. This paper reveals that a stochastic computer virus paradigm is pragmatic in contrast to the deterministic computer virus model. Outcomes of threshold number C hold in stochastic computer virus model. If C < 1 then in such a condition virus controlled in the computer population while C > 1 shows virus persists in the computer population. Unfortunately, stochastic numerical methods fail to cope with large step sizes of time. The suggested structure… More >

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