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  • Open Access


    Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Medical Images Based on Non-Subsampled Shearlet Transform and Schur Decomposition

    Meng Yang1, Jingbing Li1,2,*, Uzair Aslam Bhatti1,2, Chunyan Shao1, Yen-Wei Chen3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5539-5554, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036904

    Abstract With the development of digitalization in healthcare, more and more information is delivered and stored in digital form, facilitating people’s lives significantly. In the meanwhile, privacy leakage and security issues come along with it. Zero watermarking can solve this problem well. To protect the security of medical information and improve the algorithm’s robustness, this paper proposes a robust watermarking algorithm for medical images based on Non-Subsampled Shearlet Transform (NSST) and Schur decomposition. Firstly, the low-frequency subband image of the original medical image is obtained by NSST and chunked. Secondly, the Schur decomposition of low-frequency blocks to get stable values, extracting… More >

  • Open Access


    Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Medical Volume Data Based on Polar Cosine Transform and 3D-DCT

    Pengju Zhang1, Jingbing Li1,2,*, Uzair Aslam Bhatti1,2, Jing Liu3, Yen-wei Chen4, Dekai Li1, Lei Cao1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5853-5870, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036462

    Abstract The amount of 3D data stored and transmitted in the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is increasing, making protecting these medical data increasingly prominent. However, there are relatively few researches on 3D data watermarking. Moreover, due to the particularity of medical data, strict data quality should be considered while protecting data security. To solve the problem, in the field of medical volume data, we proposed a robust watermarking algorithm based on Polar Cosine Transform and 3D-Discrete Cosine Transform (PCT and 3D-DCT). Each slice of the volume data was transformed by PCT to obtain feature row vector, and then the reshaped… More >

  • Open Access


    LKAW: A Robust Watermarking Method Based on Large Kernel Convolution and Adaptive Weight Assignment

    Xiaorui Zhang1,2,3,*, Rui Jiang1, Wei Sun3,4, Aiguo Song5, Xindong Wei6, Ruohan Meng7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 1-17, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.034748

    Abstract Robust watermarking requires finding invariant features under multiple attacks to ensure correct extraction. Deep learning has extremely powerful in extracting features, and watermarking algorithms based on deep learning have attracted widespread attention. Most existing methods use small kernel convolution to extract image features and embed the watermarking. However, the effective perception fields for small kernel convolution are extremely confined, so the pixels that each watermarking can affect are restricted, thus limiting the performance of the watermarking. To address these problems, we propose a watermarking network based on large kernel convolution and adaptive weight assignment for loss functions. It uses large-kernel… More >

  • Open Access


    Robust Watermarking of Screen-Photography Based on JND

    Siyu Gu1, Jin Han1,*, Xingming Sun1,2, Yi Cao1,3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 4819-4833, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023955

    Abstract With the popularity of smartphones, it is often easy to maliciously leak important information by taking pictures of the phone. Robust watermarking that can resist screen photography can achieve the protection of information. Since the screen photo process can cause some irreversible distortion, the currently available screen photo watermarks do not consider the image content well and the visual quality is not very high. Therefore, this paper proposes a new screen-photography robust watermark. In terms of embedding region selection, the intensity-based Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm used for the construction of feature regions based on the density of feature points,… More >

  • Open Access


    Robust Watermarking Scheme for NIfTI Medical Images

    Abhishek Kumar1,5, Kamred Udham Singh2, Visvam Devadoss Ambeth Kumar3, Tapan Kant4, Abdul Khader Jilani Saudagar5,*, Abdullah Al Tameem5, Mohammed Al Khathami5, Muhammad Badruddin Khan5, Mozaherul Hoque Abul Hasanat5, Khalid Mahmood Malik6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3107-3125, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022817

    Abstract Computed Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technologies are widely used in medical field. Within the last few months, due to the increased use of CT scans, millions of patients have had their CT scans done. So, as a result, images showing the Corona Virus for diagnostic purposes were digitally transmitted over the internet. The major problem for the world health care system is a multitude of attacks that affect copyright protection and other ethical issues as images are transmitted over the internet. As a result, it is important to apply a robust and secure watermarking technique to… More >

  • Open Access


    A Robust 3-D Medical Watermarking Based on Wavelet Transform for Data Protection

    Xiaorui Zhang1,3,*, Wenfang Zhang1, Wei Sun2, Xingming Sun1, Sunil Kumar Jha4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.41, No.3, pp. 1043-1056, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.022305

    Abstract In a telemedicine diagnosis system, the emergence of 3D imaging enables doctors to make clearer judgments, and its accuracy also directly affects doctors’ diagnosis of the disease. In order to ensure the safe transmission and storage of medical data, a 3D medical watermarking algorithm based on wavelet transform is proposed in this paper. The proposed algorithm employs the principal component analysis (PCA) transform to reduce the data dimension, which can minimize the error between the extracted components and the original data in the mean square sense. Especially, this algorithm helps to create a bacterial foraging model based on particle swarm… More >

  • Open Access


    An Error-Correcting Code-Based Robust Watermarking Scheme for Stereolithographic Files

    Zhuorong Li1, Huawei Tian2,*, Yanhui Xiao2, Yunqi Tang1, Anhong Wang3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 247-263, 2021, DOI:10.32604/csse.2021.013898

    Abstract Stereolithographic (STL) files have been extensively used in rapid prototyping industries as well as many other fields as watermarking algorithms to secure intellectual property and protect three-dimensional models from theft. However, to the best of our knowledge, few studies have looked at how watermarking can resist attacks that involve vertex-reordering. Here, we present a lossless and robust watermarking scheme for STL files to protect against vertex-reordering attacks. Specifically, we designed a novel error-correcting code (ECC) that can correct the error of any one-bit in a bitstream by inserting several check digits. In addition, ECC is designed to make use of… More >

  • Open Access


    A Robust Watermarking Scheme Based on ROI and IWT for Remote Consultation of COVID-19

    Xiaorui Zhang1, 2, *, Wenfang Zhang1, Wei Sun2, Tong Xu1, Sunil Kumar Jha3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.64, No.3, pp. 1435-1452, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.011359

    Abstract In the current dire situation of the corona virus COVID-19, remote consultations were proposed to avoid cross-infection and regional differences in medical resources. However, the safety of digital medical imaging in remote consultations has also attracted more and more attention from the medical industry. To ensure the integrity and security of medical images, this paper proposes a robust watermarking algorithm to authenticate and recover from the distorted medical images based on regions of interest (ROI) and integer wavelet transform (IWT). First, the medical image is divided into two different parts, regions of interest and non-interest regions. Then the integrity of… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Encrypted Medical Image Based on DTCWT-DCT and Chaotic Map

    Jing Liu1,5, Jingbing Li1,*, Jieren Cheng1, Jixin Ma2, Naveed Sadiq3, Baoru Han4, Qiang Geng5, Yang Ai5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.61, No.2, pp. 889-910, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.06034

    Abstract In order to solve the problem of patient information security protection in medical images, whilst also taking into consideration the unchangeable particularity of medical images to the lesion area and the need for medical images themselves to be protected, a novel robust watermarking algorithm for encrypted medical images based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform and discrete cosine transform (DTCWT-DCT) and chaotic map is proposed in this paper. First, DTCWT-DCT transformation was performed on medical images, and dot product was per-formed in relation to the transformation matrix and logistic map. Inverse transformation was undertaken to obtain encrypted medical images. Then, in… More >

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