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  • Open Access


    The Kemeny’s Constant and Spanning Trees of Hexagonal Ring Network

    Shahid Zaman1, Ali N. A. Koam2, Ali Al Khabyah2, Ali Ahmad3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 6347-6365, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.031958

    Abstract Spanning tree () has an enormous application in computer science and chemistry to determine the geometric and dynamics analysis of compact polymers. In the field of medicines, it is helpful to recognize the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. On the other hand, Kemeny’s constant () is a beneficial quantifier characterizing the universal average activities of a Markov chain. This network invariant infers the expressions of the expected number of time-steps required to trace a randomly selected terminus state since a fixed beginning state . Levene and Loizou determined that the Kemeny’s constant can also be obtained through eigenvalues.… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Binary Firey Algorithm for the Minimum Labeling Spanning Tree Problem

    Mugang Lin1,2,*, Fangju Liu3, Huihuang Zhao1,2, Jianzhen Chen1,2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.125, No.1, pp. 197-214, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2020.09502

    Abstract Given a connected undirected graph G whose edges are labeled, the minimum labeling spanning tree (MLST) problem is to find a spanning tree of G with the smallest number of different labels. The MLST is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, which is widely applied in communication networks, multimodal transportation networks, and data compression. Some approximation algorithms and heuristics algorithms have been proposed for the problem. Firey algorithm is a new meta-heuristic algorithm. Because of its simplicity and easy implementation, it has been successfully applied in various fields. However, the basic firefly algorithm for the MLST problem is proposed in this… More >

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