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  • Open Access


    Recent Progress of Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Membrane: A Review

    Saher Manzoor1, Muhammad Waseem Ashraf1,*, Shahzadi Tayyaba2, Muhammad Imran Tariq3,*, M. Khalid Hossain4

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.2, pp. 1007-1052, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022093

    Abstract The progress of membrane technology with the development of membranes with controlled parameters led to porous membranes. These membranes can be formed using different methods and have numerous applications in science and technology. Anodization of aluminum in this aspect is an electro-synthetic process that changes the surface of the metal through oxidation to deliver an anodic oxide layer. This process results in a self-coordinated, exceptional cluster of round and hollow formed pores with controllable pore widths, periodicity, and thickness. Categorization in barrier type and porous type films, and different methods for the preparation of membranes, have been discussed. After the… More > Graphic Abstract

    Recent Progress of Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Membrane: A Review

  • Open Access


    Regulation of pathological blood-brain barrier for intracranial enhanced drug delivery and anti-glioblastoma therapeutics


    Oncology Research, Vol.29, No.5, pp. 351-363, 2021, DOI:10.32604/or.2022.025696

    Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an essential component in regulating and maintaining the homeostatic microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS). During the occurrence and development of glioblastoma (GBM), BBB is pathologically destroyed with a marked increase in permeability. Due to the obstruction of the BBB, current strategies for GBM therapeutics still obtain a meager success rate and may lead to systemic toxicity. Moreover, chemotherapy could promote pathological BBB functional restoration, which results in significantly reduced intracerebral transport of therapeutic agents during multiple administrations of GBM and the eventual failure of GBM chemotherapy. The effective delivery of intracerebral drugs still… More >

  • Open Access


    Mesenchymal stem cell secretome and nanotechnology: Combining therapeutic strategies


    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.8, pp. 1807-1813, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.019363

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have pushed the field of stem cell-based therapies by inducing tissue regeneration, immunosuppression, and angiogenesis mainly through vesicles and soluble factors release (paracrine signaling). MSC-extracellular vesicles (MSC-EV) adaptable secretome and homing to injured sites allowed researchers to unlock a new era of cell-free based therapy. In parallel, nanoparticles (NP) have been explored in contributing to transport and drug delivery systems, giving drugs desired physical-chemical properties to exploit cell behavior. However, NPs can be quickly recognized by immune cells and cleared from circulation. In this viewpoint, we explore how combining both therapeutic strategies can improve efficacy and… More >

  • Open Access


    Mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles as ‘natural’ drug delivery system for tissue regeneration


    BIOCELL, Vol.46, No.4, pp. 899-902, 2022, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2022.018594

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have abilities to mediate tissue protection through mechanisms of anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidative stress and anti-fibrosis as well as tissue regeneration through mechanisms of cell proliferation, differentiation and angiogenesis. These effects by MSCs are mediated by a variety of factors, including growth factors, cytokines and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Among these factors, EVs, containing proteins, mRNA and microRNAs (miRNA), may carry their contents into distant tissues with high stability. Therefore, the treatment with MSC-derived EVs may be promising as ‘natural’ drug delivery systems (DDS). Especially, the treatment of MSC-derived EVs with the manipulation of specific miRNAs expression has been… More >

  • Open Access


    Performance Analysis of Magnetic Nanoparticles during Targeted Drug Delivery: Application of OHAM

    Muhammad Zafar1,#,*, Muhammad Saif Ullah1,#, Tareq Manzoor2, Muddassir Ali3, Kashif Nazar4, Shaukat Iqbal5, Habib Ullah Manzoor6, Rizwan Haider1, Woo Young Kim7,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.130, No.2, pp. 723-749, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.017257

    Abstract In recent years, the emergence of nanotechnology experienced incredible development in the field of medical sciences. During the past decade, investigating the characteristics of nanoparticles during fluid flow has been one of the intriguing issues. Nanoparticle distribution and uniformity have emerged as substantial criteria in both medical and engineering applications. Adverse effects of chemotherapy on healthy tissues are known to be a significant concern during cancer therapy. A novel treatment method of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) has emerged as a promising topical cancer treatment along with some attractive advantages of improving efficacy, fewer side effects, and reduce drug dose. During… More >

  • Open Access


    Drug Response Prediction of Liver Cancer Cell Line Using Deep Learning

    Mehdi Hassan1,*, Safdar Ali2, Muhammad Sanaullah3, Khuram Shahzad4, Sadaf Mushtaq5,6, Rashda Abbasi6, Zulqurnain Ali4, Hani Alquhayz7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.2, pp. 2743-2760, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020055

    Abstract Cancer is the second deadliest human disease worldwide with high mortality rate. Rehabilitation and treatment of this disease requires precise and automatic assessment of effective drug response and control system. Prediction of treated and untreated cancerous cell line is one of the most challenging problems for precise and targeted drug delivery and response. A novel approach is proposed for prediction of drug treated and untreated cancer cell line automatically by employing modified Deep neural networks. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells are exposed to anticancer drug functionalized CFO@BTO nanoparticles developed by our lab. Prediction models are developed by modifying ResNet101 and… More >

  • Open Access


    Carbon nanotubes: A review on risks assessment, mechanism of toxicity and future directives to prevent health implication


    BIOCELL, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 267-279, 2021, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2021.013409

    Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have tremendous applications in almost every walk of life; however, their harmful impacts on humans and the environment are not well addressed. CNTs have been used in various applications ranging from medical science to different engineering branches, to ease human life. Generally, the toxicological profile of CNTs under laboratory conditions cannot be assessed primarily in medical science due to the inconsistent availability of cytotoxic study data. CNT toxicity has been affected by many physicochemical properties (e.g., size, type of functionalization), concentration, the extent of exposure, mode of exposure, and even the solvents/medium used to dissolve/disperse CNTs for… More >

  • Open Access


    Role of Tumor Microvessel Architecture and Function in Chemotherapeutic Drug Delivery: A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study

    Yan Cai1,1, Zhiyong Li1,2,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.14, No.2, pp. 59-81, 2017, DOI:10.3970/mcb.2017.014.057

    Abstract To investigate the dynamic changes of solid tumor and neo-vasculature in response to chemotherapeutic agent, we proposed a multi-discipline three-dimensional mathematical model by coupling tumor growth, angiogenesis, vessel remodelling, microcirculation and drug delivery. The tumor growth is described by the cell automaton model, in which three cell phenotypes (proliferating cell, quiescent cell and necrotic cell) are assumed to reflect the dynamics of tumor progress. A 3D tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is generated as pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated… More >

  • Open Access


    A Numerical Study of Passive Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Nanoparticles: The Effect of Mechanical Properties

    Xinyue Liu1, Yunqiao Liu1, Xiaobo Gong1,*, Huaxiong Huang2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.116, No.2, pp. 281-300, 2018, DOI: 10.31614/cmes.2018.04989

    Abstract In this work, a three-dimensional axisymmetric model with nanoparticle, receptor-ligand bonds and cell membrane as a system was used to study the quasi-static receptor-mediated endocytosis process of spherical nanoparticles in drug delivery. The minimization of the system energy function was carried out numerically, and the deformations of nanoparticle, receptor-ligand bonds and cell membrane were predicted. Results show that passive endocytosis may fail due to the rupture of receptor-ligand bonds during the wrapping process, and the size and rigidity of nanoparticles affect the total deformation energy and the terminal wrapping stage. Our results suggest that, in addition to the energy requirement,… More >

  • Open Access


    Design Evaluation of a Particle Bombardment System Used to Deliver Substances into Cells

    Eduardo M. B. Campello1,2, Tarek I. Zohdi3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.98, No.2, pp. 221-245, 2014, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2014.098.221

    Abstract This work deals with the bombardment of a stream of particles possessing varying mean particle size, velocity and aspect ratio into a cell that has fixed (known) compliance characteristics. The particles are intended to penetrate the cell membrane causing zero or minimum damage and deliver foreign substances (which are attached to their surfaces) to the interior of the cell. We adopt a particle-based (discrete element method) computational model that has been recently developed by the authors to describe both the incoming stream of particles and the cell membrane. By means of parametric numerical simulations, treating the stream’s mean particle size,… More >

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