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  • Open Access


    Explainable Software Fault Localization Model: From Blackbox to Whitebox

    Abdulaziz Alhumam*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.1, pp. 1463-1482, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.029473

    Abstract The most resource-intensive and laborious part of debugging is finding the exact location of the fault from the more significant number of code snippets. Plenty of machine intelligence models has offered the effective localization of defects. Some models can precisely locate the faulty with more than 95% accuracy, resulting in demand for trustworthy models in fault localization. Confidence and trustworthiness within machine intelligence-based software models can only be achieved via explainable artificial intelligence in Fault Localization (XFL). The current study presents a model for generating counterfactual interpretations for the fault localization model's decisions. Neural system More >

  • Open Access


    Optimal Machine Learning Enabled Intrusion Detection in Cyber-Physical System Environment

    Bassam A. Y. Alqaralleh1,*, Fahad Aldhaban1, Esam A. AlQarallehs2, Ahmad H. Al-Omari3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.3, pp. 4691-4707, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.026556

    Abstract Cyber-attacks on cyber-physical systems (CPSs) resulted to sensing and actuation misbehavior, severe damage to physical object, and safety risk. Machine learning (ML) models have been presented to hinder cyberattacks on the CPS environment; however, the non-existence of labelled data from new attacks makes their detection quite interesting. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a commonly utilized to detect and classify the existence of intrusions in the CPS environment, which acts as an important part in secure CPS environment. Latest developments in deep learning (DL) and explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) stimulate new IDSs to manage cyberattacks with… More >

  • Open Access


    An Interpretable Artificial Intelligence Based Smart Agriculture System

    Fariza Sabrina1,*, Shaleeza Sohail2, Farnaz Farid3, Sayka Jahan4, Farhad Ahamed5, Steven Gordon6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 3777-3797, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.026363

    Abstract With increasing world population the demand of food production has increased exponentially. Internet of Things (IoT) based smart agriculture system can play a vital role in optimising crop yield by managing crop requirements in real-time. Interpretability can be an important factor to make such systems trusted and easily adopted by farmers. In this paper, we propose a novel artificial intelligence-based agriculture system that uses IoT data to monitor the environment and alerts farmers to take the required actions for maintaining ideal conditions for crop production. The strength of the proposed system is in its interpretability… More >

  • Open Access


    Explainable Artificial Intelligence Solution for Online Retail

    Kumail Javaid1, Ayesha Siddiqa2, Syed Abbas Zilqurnain Naqvi2, Allah Ditta3, Muhammad Ahsan2, M. A. Khan4, Tariq Mahmood5, Muhammad Adnan Khan6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 4425-4442, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022984

    Abstract Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) help in making predictions and businesses to make key decisions that are beneficial for them. In the case of the online shopping business, it’s very important to find trends in the data and get knowledge of features that helps drive the success of the business. In this research, a dataset of 12,330 records of customers has been analyzed who visited an online shopping website over a period of one year. The main objective of this research is to find features that are relevant in terms of correctly predicting… More >

  • Open Access


    Interpretable and Adaptable Early Warning Learning Analytics Model

    Shaleeza Sohail1, Atif Alvi2,*, Aasia Khanum3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3211-3225, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.023560

    Abstract Major issues currently restricting the use of learning analytics are the lack of interpretability and adaptability of the machine learning models used in this domain. Interpretability makes it easy for the stakeholders to understand the working of these models and adaptability makes it easy to use the same model for multiple cohorts and courses in educational institutions. Recently, some models in learning analytics are constructed with the consideration of interpretability but their interpretability is not quantified. However, adaptability is not specifically considered in this domain. This paper presents a new framework based on hybrid statistical More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling of Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Biomedical Mental Disorder Diagnosis

    Anwer Mustafa Hilal1, Imène ISSAOUI2, Marwa Obayya3, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi4, Nadhem NEMRI5, Manar Ahmed Hamza1,*, Mesfer Al Duhayyim6, Abu Sarwar Zamani1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.2, pp. 3853-3867, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022663

    Abstract The abundant existence of both structured and unstructured data and rapid advancement of statistical models stressed the importance of introducing Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), a process that explains how prediction is done in AI models. Biomedical mental disorder, i.e., Autism Spectral Disorder (ASD) needs to be identified and classified at early stage itself in order to reduce health crisis. With this background, the current paper presents XAI-based ASD diagnosis (XAI-ASD) model to detect and classify ASD precisely. The proposed XAI-ASD technique involves the design of Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO)-based Feature Selection (FS) technique. In addition, More >

  • Open Access


    Autism Spectrum Disorder Prediction by an Explainable Deep Learning Approach

    Anupam Garg1, Anshu Parashar1, Dipto Barman2, Sahil Jain3, Divya Singhal3, Mehedi Masud4, Mohamed Abouhawwash5,6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 1459-1471, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022170

    Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder whose symptoms become noticeable in early years of the age though it can be present in any age group. ASD is a mental disorder which affects the communicational, social and non-verbal behaviors. It cannot be cured completely but can be reduced if detected early. An early diagnosis is hampered by the variation and severity of ASD symptoms as well as having symptoms commonly seen in other mental disorders as well. Nowadays, with the emergence of deep learning approaches in various fields, medical experts can be assisted in… More >

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