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  • Open Access


    Optimal FOPID Controllers for LFC Including Renewables by Bald Eagle Optimizer

    Ahmed M. Agwa1, Mohamed Abdeen2, Shaaban M. Shaaban1,3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 5525-5541, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.031580

    Abstract In this study, a bald eagle optimizer (BEO) is used to get optimal parameters of the fractional-order proportional–integral–derivative (FOPID) controller for load frequency control (LFC). Since BEO takes only a very short time in finding the optimal solution, it is selected for designing the FOPID controller that improves the system stability and maintains the frequency within a satisfactory range at different loads. Simulations and demonstrations are carried out using MATLAB-R2020b. The performance of the BEO-FOPID controller is evaluated using a two-zone interlinked power system at different loads and under uncertainty of wind and solar energies. The robustness of the BEO-FOPID… More >

  • Open Access


    Bilateral Contract for Load Frequency and Renewable Energy Sources Using Advanced Controller

    Krishan Arora1, Gyanendra Prasad Joshi2, Mahmoud Ragab3,4,5,*, Muhyaddin Rawa6,7,8, Ahmad H. Milyani6,7, Romany F. Mansour9, Eunmok Yang10

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.2, pp. 3165-3180, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.026966

    Abstract Reestablishment in power system brings in significant transformation in the power sector by extinguishing the possession of sound consolidated assistance. However, the collaboration of various manufacturing agencies, autonomous power manufacturers, and buyers have created complex installation processes. The regular active load and inefficiency of best measures among varied associates is a huge hazard. Any sudden load deviation will give rise to immediate amendment in frequency and tie-line power errors. It is essential to deal with every zone’s frequency and tie-line power within permitted confines followed by fluctuations within the load. Therefore, it can be proficient by implementing Load Frequency Control… More >

  • Open Access


    Frequency Control Approach and Load Forecasting Assessment for Wind Systems

    K. Sukanya*, P. Vijayakumar

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.35, No.1, pp. 971-982, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.028047

    Abstract Frequency deviation has to be controlled in power generation units when there are fluctuations in system frequency. With several renewable energy sources, wind energy forecasting is majorly focused in this work which is a tough task due to its variations and uncontrollable nature. Whenever there is a mismatch between generation and demand, the frequency deviation may arise from the actual frequency 50 Hz (in India). To mitigate the frequency deviation issue, it is necessary to develop an effective technique for better frequency control in wind energy systems. In this work, heuristic Fuzzy Logic Based Controller (FLC) is developed for providing… More >

  • Open Access


    Kalman-Filtering-Based Frequency Control Strategy Considering Electrolytic Aluminum Load

    Yuqin Chen, Shihai Yang*, Yueping Kong, Mingming Chen

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.4, pp. 1517-1529, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019646

    Abstract Traditional thermal power units are continuously replaced by renewable energies, of which fluctuations and intermittence impose pressure on the frequency stability of the power system. Electrolytic aluminum load (EAL) accounts for large amount of the local electric loads in some areas. The participation of EAL in local frequency control has huge application prospects. However, the controller design of EAL is difficult due to the measurement noise of the system frequency and the nonlinear dynamics of the EAL’s electric power consumption. Focusing on this problem, this paper proposes a control strategy for EAL to participate in the frequency control. For the… More >

  • Open Access


    Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Based Load Frequency Control in Presence of Energy Storage Devices

    Pankaj Jood*, Sanjeev Kumar Aggarwal, Vikram Chopra

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.34, No.2, pp. 785-804, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.025217

    Abstract Energy storage technologies are utilized for improving the primary frequency control in complex electrical systems. In this paper, the modeling and simulation of a two-area power system is done to evaluate and compare the impact of three different energy storage applications on load frequency control performance. Capacitive energy storage (CES), battery energy storage (BES), and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) are considered for the study. On the basis of peak overshoot and settling time, the performance of these energy storage devices is compared. The power system consists of thermal, wind, and solar resources. All nonlinearities are incorporated in the system… More >

  • Open Access


    Load Frequency Control of Multi-interconnected Renewable Energy Plants Using Multi-Verse Optimizer

    Hegazy Rezk1,*, Mohamed A. Mohamed2, Ahmed A. Zaki Diab2, N. Kanagaraj1

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.37, No.2, pp. 219-231, 2021, DOI:10.32604/csse.2021.015543

    Abstract A reliable approach based on a multi-verse optimization algorithm (MVO) for designing load frequency control incorporated in multi-interconnected power system comprising wind power and photovoltaic (PV) plants is presented in this paper. It has been applied for optimizing the control parameters of the load frequency controller (LFC) of the multi-source power system (MSPS). The MSPS includes thermal, gas, and hydro power plants for energy generation. Moreover, the MSPS is integrated with renewable energy sources (RES). The MVO algorithm is applied to acquire the ideal parameters of the controller for controlling a single area and a multi-area MSPS integrated with RES.… More >

  • Open Access


    Optimal Tuning for Load Frequency Control Using Ant Lion Algorithm in Multi‐Area Interconnected Power System

    Nour EL Yakine Koubaa, Mohamed Menaaa, Kambiz Tehranib, Mohamed Boudoura

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.25, No.2, pp. 279-294, 2019, DOI:10.31209/2018.100000007

    Abstract This paper presents the use of a novel nature inspired meta-heuristic algorithm namely Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO), which is inspired from the ant lions hunting mechanism to enhance the frequency regulation and optimize the load frequency control (LFC) loop parameters. The frequency regulation issue was formulated as an optimal load frequency control problem (OLFC). The proposed ALO algorithm was applied to reach the best combination of the PID controller parameters in each control area to achieve both frequency and tie-line power flow exchange deviations minimization. The control strategy has been tested firstly with the standard two-area power system, followed by… More >

  • Open Access


    Stability Analysis of Cyber-Physical Micro Grid Load Frequency Control System with Time-Varying Delay and Non-Linear Load Perturbations

    D. Vijeswaran1,*, V. Manikandan2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.121, No.3, pp. 801-813, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2019.07793

    Abstract In a cyber-physical micro-grid system, wherein the control functions are executed through open communication channel, stability is an important issue owing to the factors related to the time-delay encountered in the data transfer. Transfer of feedback variable as discrete data packets in communication network invariably introduces inevitable time-delays in closed loop control systems. This delay, depending upon the network traffic condition, inherits a time-varying characteristic; nevertheless, it adversely impacts the system performance and stability. The load perturbations in a micro-grid system are considerably influenced by the presence of fluctuating power generators like wind and solar power. Since these non-conventional energy… More >

  • Open Access


    Kautz Function Based Continuous-Time Model Predictive Controller for Load Frequency Control in a Multi-Area Power System

    A. Parassuram1,*, P. Somasundaram1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.117, No.2, pp. 169-187, 2018, DOI:10.31614/cmes.2018.01720

    Abstract A continuous-time Model Predictive Controller was proposed using Kautz function in order to improve the performance of Load Frequency Control (LFC). A dynamic model of an interconnected power system was used for Model Predictive Controller (MPC) design. MPC predicts the future trajectory of the dynamic model by calculating the optimal closed loop feedback gain matrix. In this paper, the optimal closed loop feedback gain matrix was calculated using Kautz function. Being an Orthonormal Basis Function (OBF), Kautz function has an advantage of solving complex pole-based nonlinear system. Genetic Algorithm (GA) was applied to optimally tune the Kautz function-based MPC. A… More >

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