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  • Open Access


    The Emerging Role of Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 in the Cancer Immunotherapy

    Xue Cui1,2, Min Peng2, Honglei Chen1,*

    Oncologie, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 665-678, 2022, DOI:10.32604/oncologie.2022.023641

    Abstract The emergence of tumor immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has brought new life to cancer treatment, and ICIs can effectively treat various tumors. Among the immune anti-cancer therapies, PD-1 is undoubtedly the hot target after CTLA-4, but due to the ineffectiveness of PD-1 in treating certain tumors, researchers have shifted their focus to other combination targets, such as LAG-3, TIM3, IDO-1, etc. One of these promising targets is LAG-3, a target with multiple clinical trials, which has increasingly shown to be an inhibitory co-receptor that plays a vital role in autoimmunity, cancer immunity, and anti-infection immunity. Immune combination therapy… More >

  • Open Access


    PD-1 Relevant Genes Predict the Prognosis of Breast Cancer and Their Prediction Effect in Tumor Response to Immunotherapy

    Yu Xiao1,2,#, Jianping Jiang3,#, Yan Chen1,4, Yi Huang1, Changyuan Wei1,*

    Oncologie, Vol.24, No.4, pp. 729-742, 2022, DOI:10.32604/oncologie.2022.026118

    Abstract Background: Immunotherapy is becoming a powerful approach in the treatment of breast cancer. However, high response rates in the majority of breast cancer patients have yet to be achieved. Materials and Methods: Based on public data sources, we identified 22 genes that are correlated with PD-1 expression as well as differentially expressed between tumor tissues and normal tissues, and high expression of all the key genes was correlated with a superior survival outcome. Using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox regression model, a risk score was constructed. Results: A multivariate Cox analysis showed that the constructed risk score… More >

  • Open Access


    Biological and molecular studies on specific immune cells treated with checkpoint inhibitors for the thera-personal approach of breast cancer patients (ex-vivo study)


    Oncology Research, Vol.29, No.5, pp. 319-329, 2021, DOI:10.32604/or.2022.025249

    Abstract Immunotherapy becomes a promising line of treatment for breast cancer (BC) however, its success rate is still limited. Methods: The study was designed to optimize the condition for producing an effective dendritic cell (DCs) based immunotherapy by using DCs and T lymphocytes together with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor-infiltrating DCs (TIDCs), treated with anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies. This mixture of immune cells was co-cultured with autologous breast cancer cells (BCCs) isolated from 26 BC females. Results: There was a significant upregulation of CD86 and CD83 on DCs (P = 0.001 and 0.017, respectively), similarly upregulation of CD8, CD4 and… More >

  • Open Access


    Polarized Autologous Macrophages (PAM) Can Be a Tumor Vaccine

    Dongqing Wang1,*, Heying Chen1, Yi Hu2,*

    Oncologie, Vol.24, No.3, pp. 441-449, 2022, DOI:10.32604/oncologie.2022.024898

    Abstract Immunotherapy is currently recognized as one of the most promising anticancer strategies. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor-associated macrophages are mainly M2-type macrophages with tumor-promoting effects. Therefore, the reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages from M2 to M1 type is a potential strategy for cancer therapy. We have previously shown the anticancer effects of implantable allogeneic M1 macrophages in mice. Here, we further engineered autologous mouse bone marrow cells into M1 macrophages and then embedded them into a sodium alginate gel to prepare an implantable immunotherapeutic agent (M1@Gel). We demonstrate that M1@Gel repolarizes M2 macrophages to M1 type and activates the immune responses… More >

  • Open Access


    IL-24-Armed Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Exerts Potent Antitumor Effects via Multiple Pathways in Colorectal Cancer

    Lili Deng*1, Xue Yang†1, Jun Fan*, Yuedi Ding*, Ying Peng*, Dong Xu*, Biao Huang*‡, Zhigang Hu

    Oncology Research, Vol.28, No.6, pp. 579-590, 2020, DOI:10.3727/096504020X15942028641011

    Abstract Colorectal cancer is an aggressive malignancy for which there are limited treatment options. Oncolytic vaccinia virus is being developed as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Arming vaccinia virus with immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance the tumor cell-specific replication and antitumor efficacy. Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is an important immune mediator, as well as a broad-spectrum tumor suppressor. We constructed a targeted vaccinia virus of Guang9 strain harboring IL-24 (VG9-IL-24) to evaluate its antitumor effects. In vitro, VG9-IL-24 induced an increased number of apoptotic cells and blocked colorectal cancer cells in the G2 /M phase of the cell cycle. VG9-IL-24 induced apoptosis in… More >

  • Open Access


    Microenvironment Analysis of Prognosis and Molecular Signature of Immune-Related Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Bo Ling, Zuliang Huang, Suoyi Huang, Li Qian, Genliang Li, Qianli Tang

    Oncology Research, Vol.28, No.6, pp. 561-578, 2020, DOI:10.3727/096504020X15907428281601

    Abstract There is growing evidence on the clinical significance of tumor microenvironment (TME) cells in predicting prognosis and therapeutic effects. However, cell interactions in tumor microenvironments have not been thoroughly studied or systematically analyzed so far. In this study, 22 immune cell components in the lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) TME were analyzed using gene expression profile from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The TME-based molecular subtypes of LUAD were defined to evaluate further the relationship between molecular subtypes, prognosis, and clinical characteristics. A TME risk score model was constructed by using the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of… More >

  • Open Access


    Research Progress in Immunotherapy of NSCLC With EGFR-Sensitive Mutations

    Yudie Yang*1, Xia Zhang†1, Yajie Gao*, Yan Dong*, Di Wang*, Yanping Huang*, Tianhao Qu*, Buqun Fan*, Qizheng Li*, Chunxia Zhang*, Xiaonan Cui*, Bin Zhang*

    Oncology Research, Vol.29, No.1, pp. 63-74, 2021, DOI:10.3727/096504022X16462176651719

    Abstract Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence and mortality across the world. The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors for lung cancer has improved the prognosis of some lung cancer patients to a greater extent and provided a new direction for the clinical treatment of lung cancer. Immunotherapy still has limitations in terms of its appropriate population and adverse reactions. Particularly for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, there has been no major breakthrough in current immunotherapy. Whether immunotherapy can bring new benefits after drug resistance is induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitor-targeted… More >

  • Open Access


    Applications of CRISPR-Cas System in Tumor Biology

    Mengdan Ma1,2, Yuchen Liu1,*, Weiren Huang1,*

    Oncologie, Vol.23, No.4, pp. 463-492, 2021, DOI:10.32604/oncologie.2022.019415

    Abstract The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system, which is an RNA-guided nuclease system, plays an important role in the adaptive immune response of bacteria, and it is a rapidly developing gene editing technology. It has been widely used in a variety of cells, microorganisms, plants, and animals. This technique has helped to overcome the limitations of previous gene editing methods, and it has promoted the development of synthetic biology, genetics, and proteomics. The ability of the CRISPR-Cas system to modify the genetic components of a system has led to various practical applications, such as base editing, transcription regulation,… More >

  • Open Access


    Dynamic Monitoring of Immunotherapy Effectiveness with Different Biomarkers in the Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Sridha Ganesh1, Rui Wang1, Honglei Chen1,2

    Oncologie, Vol.23, No.3, pp. 335-350, 2021, DOI:10.32604/oncologie.2021.018610

    Abstract Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes about 84% of lung cancer. Hence, increased efforts have been fueled into immunotherapy of NSCLC with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). ICIs have recently taken off as promising immune-therapeutic methods that have slowed down the progress of NSCLC and equipped patients with survival advantages. However, the long-term respondents tally is less than 20% of the population. This low response rate warrants the need for dynamic biomarkers which will provide insight into the possible response of patients to ICIs. Biomarkers are biological molecules that predict the pathologic state of patients and the potential response they will… More >

  • Open Access


    GM-CSF-Loaded Nanoparticles for Photothermal-Assisted Immunotherapy against Orthotopic Bladder Cancer

    Weifeng Ren1,2,#, Xiaomeng Cai2,3,#, Jun Chen2,3,#, Lifo Ruan2,3, Huiru Lu2, Jiayu Zhang2,3, Yi Hu2,3,*, Jimin Gao1,*

    Oncologie, Vol.23, No.3, pp. 359-371, 2021, DOI:10.32604/Oncologie.2021.018605

    Abstract This study reported the construction of GM-CSF-loaded chitosan/graphene oxide nanoparticles for photothermal therapy-assisted immunotherapy against murine orthotopic bladder cancer. The encapsulated GM-CSF in chitosan/graphene oxide nanoparticles facilitated their immobilization on biotinylated mouse orthotopic bladder cancer surface, resulting in slow release of antitumor immune adjuvant. Locally released GM-CSF efficiently recruited dendritic cells to bladder tumor sites, thereby promoting immune responses in mice. Thus, the activated immune response in mice provided enhanced antitumor effects. Meanwhile, the thermal effect from the nanoparticles upon light irradiation induced a significant increase in dendritic cells and T cells compared with other groups, which confirmed that the… More >

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