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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Solar Energy Harvesting Using a Timer-Based Relay Selection

    Raed Alhamad1,*, Hatem Boujemaa2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 2149-2159, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033222

    Abstract In this paper, the throughput and delay of cooperative communications are derived when solar energy is used and relay node is selected using a timer. The source and relays harvest energy from sun using a photo voltaic system. The harvested power is used by the source to transmit data to the relays. Then, a selected relay amplifies the signal to the destination. Opportunistic, partial and reactive relay selection are used. The relay transmits when its timer elapses. The timer is set to a value proportional to the inverse of its Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multiway Relay Based Framework for Network Coding in Multi-Hop WSNs

    Vinod Kumar Menaria1, Anand Nayyar2, Sandeep Kumar3, Ketan Kotecha4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.1, pp. 1199-1216, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.032162

    Abstract In today’s information technology (IT) world, the multi-hop wireless sensor networks (MHWSNs) are considered the building block for the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled communication systems for controlling everyday tasks of organizations and industry to provide quality of service (QoS) in a stipulated time slot to end-user over the Internet. Smart city (SC) is an example of one such application which can automate a group of civil services like automatic control of traffic lights, weather prediction, surveillance, etc., in our daily life. These IoT-based networks with multi-hop communication and multiple sink nodes provide efficient communication… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cooperative Relay Networks Based on the OAM Technique for 5G Applications

    Mohammad Alkhawatrah, Ahmad Alamayreh, Nidal Qasem*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.44, No.3, pp. 1911-1919, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.028614

    Abstract Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) is an intrinsic property of electromagnetic waves. Great research has been witnessed in the last decades aiming at exploiting the OAM wave property in different areas in radio and optics. One promising area of particular interest is to enhance the efficiency of the available communications spectrum. However, adopting OAM-based solutions is not priceless as these suffer from wave divergence especially when the OAM order is high. This shall limit the practical communications distance, especially in the radio regime. In this paper, we propose a cooperative OAM relaying system consisting of a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Beamforming Technique Using Rotman Lens Antenna for Wireless Relay Networks

    Samer Alabed*, Mohammad Al-Rabayah, Wael Hosny Fouad Aly

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 5641-5653, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.030371

    Abstract Rotman lens, which is a radio frequency beam-former that consists of multiple input and multiple output beam ports, can be used in industrial, scientific, and medical applications as a beam steering device. The input ports collect the signals to be propagated through the lens cavity toward the output ports before being transmitted by the antenna arrays to the destination in order to enhance the error performance by optimizing the overall signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this article, a low-cost Rotman lens antenna is designed and deployed to enhance the overall performance of the conventional… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    NOMA-Based Cooperative Relaying Transmission for the Industrial Internet of Things

    Yinghua Zhang1,*, Rui Cao1, Lixin Tian1, Rong Dai2, Zhennan Cao2, Jim Feng3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.3, pp. 6513-6534, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.029467

    Abstract With the continuous maturity of the fifth generation (5G) communications, industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) technology has been widely applied in fields such as smart factories. In smart factories, 5G-based production line monitoring can improve production efficiency and reduce costs, but there are problems with limited monitoring coverage and insufficient wireless spectrum resources, which restricts the application of IIoT in the construction of smart factories. In response to these problems, we propose a hybrid spectrum access mechanism based on Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) cooperative relaying transmission to improve the monitoring coverage and spectrum efficiency. As… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Design of 220 kV Line Protection Action Deduction System Based on Numerical Simulation

    Tiecheng Li1, Qingquan Liu1, Hui Fan2, Xianzhi Wang1, Daming Zhou3,*, Junan Guo3, Lee Li3, Kun Zhou3, Yujie Hu3

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2105-2134, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.017718

    Abstract Accurate conditions monitoring and early wrong action warnings of relay protection in the Smart Substation is the basic guarantee to realize the normal operation of primary and secondary system of the power grid. At present, the traditional operation and maintenance monitoring methods of relay protections have poor timeliness, while some automatic monitoring methods have insufficient early warning performance, and lack the online action deduction function independent of the actual device. In this paper, a design method of integrated action deduction system including protection logic reasoning and software and hardware operation condition is proposed. The system More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Novel Sensing Hole Recovery with Expanded Relay Node Capability

    Moonseong Kim1, Woochan Lee2,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.44, No.1, pp. 663-675, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.025615

    Abstract The occurrence of ‘sensing holes’ not only hinders seamless data collection but also leads to misinterpretation of information in certain areas under extensive data analysis. In order to overcome this, various sensor relocation strategies have been proposed, but the existing relocation strategies revealed problems such as the ping-pong, shaded area, network disconnection, etc. This paper conducted research on relocation protocols in a distributed environment that is very suitable for real-world situations and efficiently recovering the problem of sensing holes. First, a simulation was performed on the distribution of the shaded area for data collection, which More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Full Duplex Media Access Control Protocol for Multihop Network Computing

    J. Avila Selvi Therase1,*, S. Allwin1, A. Ahilan2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.44, No.1, pp. 297-309, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.023515

    Abstract Intelligent communication technologies beyond the network are proposed by using a new full-duplex protocol. The Media Access Control (MAC) is a data interaction network protocol, which outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4e. This research discusses the planning and execution of full-duplex (FD) pipeline MAC protocol for multihop wireless networks (MWN). The design uses a combination of Radio frequency and baseband methods to realize full-duplexing with smallest impact on cross layer functions. The execution and trial results specify that Pipeline Media Access Control (PiMAC) protocol considerably develops network implementation in terms of transmission protocol (TP) and transmission delay.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    QoS Constrained Network Coding Technique to Data Transmission Using IoT

    A. Sathishkumar1,*, T. Rammohan2, S. Sathish Kumar3, J. Uma3, K. Srujan Raju4, Aarti Sangwan5, M. Sivachitra6, M. Prabu7

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.43, No.2, pp. 531-544, 2022, DOI:10.32604/csse.2022.021694

    Abstract The research work presents, constrained network coding technique to ensure the successful data transmission based composite channel cmos technology using dielectric properties. The charge fragmentation and charge splitting are two components of the filtered switch domino (FSD) technique. Further behavior of selected switching is achieved using generator called conditional pulse generator which is employed in Multi Dynamic Node Domino (MDND) technique. Both FSD and MDND technique need wide area compared to existing single node-keeper domino technique. The aim of this research is to minimize dissipation of power and to achieve less consumption of power. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Embedded Coded Relay System for Molecular Communications

    Eman S. Attia1, Ashraf A. M. Khalaf1, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie2, Saied M. Abd El-atty2, Konstantinos A. Lizos3, Osama Alfarraj4, Farid Shawki2, Imran Khan5, Ki-Il Kim6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 2729-2748, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.026197

    Abstract With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) has urged scientists and industrialists to explore modern information and communication technology (ICT) as a means to reduce or even eliminate it. The World Health Organization recently reported that the virus may infect the organism through any organ in the living body, such as the respiratory, the immunity, the nervous, the digestive, or the cardiovascular system. Targeting the abovementioned goal, we envision an implanted nanosystem embedded in the intra living-body network. The main function of the nanosystem is either to perform diagnosis and… More >

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