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  • Open Access


    A Novel Color Image Watermarking Method with Adaptive Scaling Factor Using Similarity-Based Edge Region

    Kali Gurkahraman1,*, Rukiye Karakis2, Hidayet Takci1

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.1, pp. 55-77, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.037798

    Abstract This study aimed to deal with three challenges: robustness, imperceptibility, and capacity in the image watermarking field. To reach a high capacity, a novel similarity-based edge detection algorithm was developed that finds more edge points than traditional techniques. The colored watermark image was created by inserting a randomly generated message on the edge points detected by this algorithm. To ensure robustness and imperceptibility, watermark and cover images were combined in the high-frequency subbands using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition. In the watermarking stage, the watermark image was weighted by the adaptive scaling factor More >

  • Open Access


    Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Medical Images Based on Non-Subsampled Shearlet Transform and Schur Decomposition

    Meng Yang1, Jingbing Li1,2,*, Uzair Aslam Bhatti1,2, Chunyan Shao1, Yen-Wei Chen3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5539-5554, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036904

    Abstract With the development of digitalization in healthcare, more and more information is delivered and stored in digital form, facilitating people’s lives significantly. In the meanwhile, privacy leakage and security issues come along with it. Zero watermarking can solve this problem well. To protect the security of medical information and improve the algorithm’s robustness, this paper proposes a robust watermarking algorithm for medical images based on Non-Subsampled Shearlet Transform (NSST) and Schur decomposition. Firstly, the low-frequency subband image of the original medical image is obtained by NSST and chunked. Secondly, the Schur decomposition of low-frequency blocks… More >

  • Open Access


    Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Medical Volume Data Based on Polar Cosine Transform and 3D-DCT

    Pengju Zhang1, Jingbing Li1,2,*, Uzair Aslam Bhatti1,2, Jing Liu3, Yen-wei Chen4, Dekai Li1, Lei Cao1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5853-5870, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036462

    Abstract The amount of 3D data stored and transmitted in the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is increasing, making protecting these medical data increasingly prominent. However, there are relatively few researches on 3D data watermarking. Moreover, due to the particularity of medical data, strict data quality should be considered while protecting data security. To solve the problem, in the field of medical volume data, we proposed a robust watermarking algorithm based on Polar Cosine Transform and 3D-Discrete Cosine Transform (PCT and 3D-DCT). Each slice of the volume data was transformed by PCT to obtain feature row… More >

  • Open Access


    A Multi-Stage Security Solution for Medical Color Images in Healthcare Applications

    Walid El-Shafai1,2,*, Fatma Khallaf2,3, El-Sayed M. El-Rabaie2, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie2, Iman Almomani1,4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.3, pp. 3599-3618, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.037655

    Abstract This paper presents a robust multi-stage security solution based on fusion, encryption, and watermarking processes to transmit color healthcare images, efficiently. The presented solution depends on the features of discrete cosine transform (DCT), lifting wavelet transform (LWT), and singular value decomposition (SVD). The primary objective of this proposed solution is to ensure robustness for the color medical watermarked images against transmission attacks. During watermark embedding, the host color medical image is transformed into four sub-bands by employing three stages of LWT. The resulting low-frequency sub-band is then transformed by employing three stages of DCT followed… More >

  • Open Access


    Robust Image Watermarking Using LWT and Stochastic Gradient Firefly Algorithm

    Sachin Sharma1,*, Meena Malik2, Chander Prabha3, Amal Al-Rasheed4, Mona Alduailij4, Sultan Almakdi5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 393-407, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033536

    Abstract Watermarking of digital images is required in diversified applications ranging from medical imaging to commercial images used over the web. Usually, the copyright information is embossed over the image in the form of a logo at the corner or diagonal text in the background. However, this form of visible watermarking is not suitable for a large class of applications. In all such cases, a hidden watermark is embedded inside the original image as proof of ownership. A large number of techniques and algorithms are proposed by researchers for invisible watermarking. In this paper, we focus… More >

  • Open Access


    Zero Watermarking Algorithm for Medical Image Based on Resnet50-DCT

    Mingshuai Sheng1, Jingbing Li1,2,*, Uzair Aslam Bhatti1,2,3, Jing Liu4, Mengxing Huang1,5, Yen-Wei Chen6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 293-309, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036438

    Abstract Medical images are used as a diagnostic tool, so protecting their confidentiality has long been a topic of study. From this, we propose a Resnet50-DCT-based zero watermarking algorithm for use with medical images. To begin, we use Resnet50, a pre-training network, to draw out the deep features of medical images. Then the deep features are transformed by DCT transform and the perceptual hash function is used to generate the feature vector. The original watermark is chaotic scrambled to get the encrypted watermark, and the watermark information is embedded into the original medical image by XOR… More >

  • Open Access


    Robust Multi-Watermarking Algorithm for Medical Images Based on GoogLeNet and Henon Map

    Wenxing Zhang1, Jingbing Li1,2,*, Uzair Aslam Bhatti1,2, Jing Liu3, Junhua Zheng1, Yen-Wei Chen4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 565-586, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036317

    Abstract The field of medical images has been rapidly evolving since the advent of the digital medical information era. However, medical data is susceptible to leaks and hacks during transmission. This paper proposed a robust multi-watermarking algorithm for medical images based on GoogLeNet transfer learning to protect the privacy of patient data during transmission and storage, as well as to increase the resistance to geometric attacks and the capacity of embedded watermarks of watermarking algorithms. First, a pre-trained GoogLeNet network is used in this paper, based on which the parameters of several previous layers of the… More >

  • Open Access


    LKAW: A Robust Watermarking Method Based on Large Kernel Convolution and Adaptive Weight Assignment

    Xiaorui Zhang1,2,3,*, Rui Jiang1, Wei Sun3,4, Aiguo Song5, Xindong Wei6, Ruohan Meng7

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 1-17, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.034748

    Abstract Robust watermarking requires finding invariant features under multiple attacks to ensure correct extraction. Deep learning has extremely powerful in extracting features, and watermarking algorithms based on deep learning have attracted widespread attention. Most existing methods use small kernel convolution to extract image features and embed the watermarking. However, the effective perception fields for small kernel convolution are extremely confined, so the pixels that each watermarking can affect are restricted, thus limiting the performance of the watermarking. To address these problems, we propose a watermarking network based on large kernel convolution and adaptive weight assignment for… More >

  • Open Access


    A Dual Model Watermarking Framework for Copyright Protection in Image Processing Networks

    Yuhang Meng1, Xianyi Chen1,*, Xingming Sun1, Yu Liu1, Guo Wei2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 831-844, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033700

    Abstract Image processing networks have gained great success in many fields, and thus the issue of copyright protection for image processing networks has become a focus of attention. Model watermarking techniques are widely used in model copyright protection, but there are two challenges: (1) designing universal trigger sample watermarking for different network models is still a challenge; (2) existing methods of copyright protection based on trigger s watermarking are difficult to resist forgery attacks. In this work, we propose a dual model watermarking framework for copyright protection in image processing networks. The trigger sample watermark is… More >

  • Open Access


    Hybrid Watermarking and Encryption Techniques for Securing Medical Images

    Amel Ali Alhussan1,*, Hanaa A. Abdallah2, Sara Alsodairi2, Abdelhamied A. Ateya3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 403-416, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.035048

    Abstract Securing medical data while transmission on the network is required because it is sensitive and life-dependent data. Many methods are used for protection, such as Steganography, Digital Signature, Cryptography, and Watermarking. This paper introduces a novel robust algorithm that combines discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT), and singular value decomposition (SVD) digital image-watermarking algorithms. The host image is decomposed using a two-dimensional DWT (2D-DWT) to approximate low-frequency sub-bands in the embedding process. Then the sub-band low-high (LH) is decomposed using 2D-DWT to four new sub-bands. The resulting sub-band low-high (LH1) is decomposed using 2D-DWT… More >

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