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  • Morphometric and Biochemical Changes in Agave americana L. Plantlets Induced By Ethyl Methanesulfonate
  • Abstract A. americana L. is a crop with very little genetic variability. In order to evaluate the effect of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce variability in in vitro plantlets of A. americana, different explants (meristems, leaves and roots) were evaluated for the production of callus. MS medium supplemented with ANA (2.68 μM) and BAP (2.68 μM) was used. Callus obtained from apical meristem were treated with 15 mM EMS for two hours after which shoot formation was induced using 2,4-D (0.11 μM) and BAP (44 μM). The EMS induced variations in the morphometric and morphological parameters of the plantlets obtained, with…
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  • Green Synthesis of Bimetallic Nanoparticles From Prosopis juliflora (Sw) DC., and Its Effect Against Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
  • Abstract Phenacoccus solenopsis has been recognized as an aggressively invasive species on cotton plants in different countries. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of green synthesized Cu/Zn-nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Prosopis juliflora (mezquite) against P. solenopsis. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed bimetallic nanoparticles of Cu/Zn-NPs with spherical shape with varying size of 74.33 nm to 59.46 nm. More than 30% mortality of P. solenopsis was observed with Cu/Zn-nanoparticles (100 ppm) at 96 hours after treatment. Negligible mortality of P. solenopsis was recorded with Cu/Zn solution (100 ppm) and aqueous P. juliflora extracts. The results of the…
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  • Biochar Effectively Reduces Ammonia Volatilization From Nitrogen-Applied Soils in Tea and Bamboo Plantations
  • Abstract Intensive practices in forest soils result in dramatic nitrogen (N) losses, particularly ammonia (NH3) volatilization, to adjacent environmental areas. A soil column experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of bamboo biochar on NH3 volatilization from tea garden and bamboo forest soils. The results showed that biochar amendment effectively reduced NH3 volatilization from tea garden and bamboo forest soil by 79.2% and 75.5%, respectively. The soil pH values increased by 0.53-0.61 units after biochar application. The NH4+-N and total N of both soils were 13.8-29.7% and 34.0-41.9% higher under the biochar treatments than under the control treatment, respectively. In addition,…
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  • Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Responses of Barley Seedlings to Aluminum Stress
  • Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most Aluminum (Al) sensitive cereal species. In this study, the physiological, biochemical, and molecular response of barley seedlings to Al treatment was examined to gain insight into Al response and tolerance mechanisms. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity were inhibited to different degrees following Al exposure. The MDA content also significantly increased with increasing Al concentrations. SRAP results indicated significant differences between Al treatments and controls in terms of SRAP profile, and the genomic template stability (GTS) decreased with increasing Al concentration and duration. These…
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  • Photosynthetic Behaviour and Mineral Nutrition of Tamarix gallica Cultivated Under Aluminum and NaCl Combined Stress
  • Abstract The lack of knowledge of plant tolerance and differential response to aluminum (Al) encouraged many researchers, in the last decade, to elucidate Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. The current study reported the impact of Al, a toxic element with negative effects on plant growth and development, in halophytic plant Tamarix gallica. Plants were subjected to different Al concentrations (0, 200, 500 and 800 μM) with or without NaCl (200 mM) supplementation. Growth, photosynthesis and mineral content were assessed. Al stress had a significant decrease on shoots’ biomass production between 19 to 41%, and a little variation on chlorophyll content and…
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  • Trace Elements in the Soil-Plant Systems of Copper Mine Areas-A Case Study From Murgul Copper Mine From the Black Sea Region of Turkey
  • Abstract This study presents a case study on the heavy metal analysis of soil and plant samples around the Murgul copper mine, one of the first and most important mining areas in Turkey. An attempt has been made to investigate the status of trace elements like Al3+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Cd2+ in soils and plants. The sampling localities were taken from 500 m, 600 m, and 1000 m altitudes around the factory and at 1400 m in the forest zone. The aboveground parts and foliage ash of Silene compacta, Tussilago farfara, Smilax excelsa, Rhododendron ponticum, R. luteum,…
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  • Targeting Glycinebetaine for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants: Physiological Mechanism, Molecular Interaction and Signaling
  • Abstract In the era of climate change, abiotic stresses (e.g., salinity, drought, extreme temperature, flooding, metal/metalloid(s), UV radiation, ozone, etc.) are considered as one of the most complex environmental constraints that restricts crop production worldwide. Introduction of stress-tolerant crop cultivars is the most auspicious way of surviving this constraint, and to produce these types of tolerant crops. Several bioengineering mechanisms involved in stress signaling are being adopted in this regard. One example of this kind of manipulation is the osmotic adjustment. The quarternary ammonium compound glycinebetaine (GB), also originally referred to as betaine is a methylated glycine derivative. Among the betaines,…
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  • Morphology and Genetic Studies of Cymodocea Seagrass Genus in Tunisian Coasts
  • Abstract Specimens of Cymodocea (Viridiplantae, Magnoliophyta) collected on the Tunisian coasts showed a particular morphological and anatomical difference with the classical descriptions of Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asch. the only species of this genus reported in the Mediterranean Sea. In order to precise the taxonomic identity of the new specimens we aimed in this work (i) to verify the identity of the new forms, (ii) to evaluate the genetic diversity of the population, (iii) to test the validity of the existing identification keys of the Tunisian Cymodocea populations. Four stations located in two regions of the Tunisian coasts were sampled. Leaf morphological…
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  • Effect of Eugenia winzerlingii Extracts on Bemisia tabaci and Evaluation of its Nursery Propagation
  • Abstract The development of plant-derived products to control Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an urgent need for production of horticultural crops. Plant extracts and essential oils of several species of the genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae) have shown insecticidal activity. In southern Mexico, leaf extracts from Eugenia winzerlingii showed nematicidal effect but its insecticidal properties have not been explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal effect of aqueous and organic extracts from E. winzerlingii leaves on B. tabaci egg, nymph and adult stages, and else to explore its nursery propagation. Then, extracts of this species were obtained…
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