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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Efficacy of Weed Control Practices for Parthenium Weed and Sunflower Crop under Varying Tillage Systems

    Noor Ahmad1,*, Rana Nadeem Abbas1, Asif Tanveer1, Zulfiqar Ahmad Saqib2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08536

    Abstract Parthenium poses serious threat to modern crop production system and necessitate evaluating control practices for its effective management. Efficacy of different weed control practices for controlling parthenium was explored in conventional and deep tillage systems in the field conditions. Hand hoeing (20 and 35 days after emergence), S-Metolachlor (pre-emergence herbicide), sorghum straw mulch @ 5 tons ha-1 and combination of hand hoeing and sorghum straw mulch (hand hoeing at 20 and straw mulch at 35 days after emergence) were used as weed control practice. Weedy check where no weed control measure was applied was also included in this experiment for… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Assessment of Castor Plant (Ricinus communis L.) Tolerance to Heavy Metal Stress-A Review

    Akwasi Yeboah1, Jiannong Lu1, Ting Yang1, Yuzhen Shi1, Hanna Amoanimaa-Dede1, Kwadwo Gyapong Agyenim Boateng2, Xuegui Yin1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09267

    Abstract Increased urbanization and industrialization have greatly contributed to the emission of higher amount of heavy metals such as cadmium, nickel, and lead into the environment. These metals are non-biodegradable and toxic, causing much effects on plants and by extension to animals and humans, which have become a major global concern. The inherent ability of plants to resist heavy metal toxicity seems to be the most sustainable and cost-effective strategy. Castor plant is widely studied due to its tolerance to the effects of heavy metal contaminated soils, owing to its large biomass content and high accumulating capacity. Castor plants to some… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Oxidative Stress Tolerance Mechanism in Rice under Salinity

    Mahmuda Binte Monsur1, Nasrin Akter Ivy1, M. Moynul Haque2, Mirza Hasanuzzaman3, Ayman EL Sabagh4,5,*, Md. Motiar Rohman6,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09144

    Abstract The research was conducted to investigate comparative oxidative damage including probable protective roles of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under salinity stress. Seedlings of two rice genotypes: Pokkali (tolerant) and BRRI dhan28 (sensitive) were subjected to 8 dSm−1 salinity stress for seven days in a hydroponic system. We observed significant variation between Pokkali and BRRI dhan28 in phenotypic, biochemical and molecular level under salinity stress. Carotenoid content, ion homeostasis, antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate and glutathione redox system and proline accumulation may help Pokkali to develop defense system during salinity stress. However, the activity antioxidant enzymes particularly… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Enhancing Drought Tolerance in Wheat through Improving MorphoPhysiological and Antioxidants Activities of Plants by the Supplementation of Foliar Silicon

    Zahoor Ahmad1,*, Ejaz Ahmad Waraich2, Celaleddin Barutçular1, Akbar Hossain3, Murat Erman4, Fatih ÇIĞ4, Hany Gharib5, Ayman EL Sabagh4, 5, *

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09143

    Abstract The main objective of the research is to assess the role of foliar application of silicon (Si) for enhancing the survival ability of wheat under drought stress through improving its morphology, physicochemical and antioxidants activities. Treatments were five doses of Si at the rate of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM and a control. After completion of seeds germination, pots were divided into four distinct groups at various field capacity (FC) levels, such as 100% FC (well-irrigated condition), 75% FC (slight water deficit), 50% FC (modest water deficit) and 25% FC (severe water deficit stress condition). Foliar application of Si… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    From Markers to Genome Based Breeding in Horticultural Crops: An Overview

    Riaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1,*, Rashad Mukhtar Balal2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , pp. 183-204, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08537

    Abstract Molecular markers, genome sequencing and genome editing are considered as efficient tools to accomplish demands of plant breeders for crop improvement programs. Morphological and biochemical markers have not been extensively used as these are greatly influenced by environmental factors. Different molecular markers and sequencing techniques are routinely used in evaluation of genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship, accurate classification or taxonomy, characterization of germplasm, identification of hybrids and phylogenetic studies. Desired and undesired traits controlled by genes can be identified through different molecular markers technology all over the globe. These molecular markers are well established and have successfully been used for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-strain Inoculation with PGPR Producing ACC Deaminase is More Effective Than Single-strain Inoculation to Improve Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Growth and Yield

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye1,*, Misbah Batool Zahra1, Subhan Danish1, Mazhar Abbas2, Abdur Rehim1, Muhammad Naeem Akbar1, Ayesha Iftikhar1, Mehreen Gul1, Ifat Nazir1

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08918

    Abstract Rhizosphere bacteria that colonize plant roots and confer beneficial effects are referred as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Among all PGPR, some rhizobacteria have an ability to produce ACC deaminase enzyme. This enzyme catalyzes stress ACC into a-ketobutyrate and ammonia instead of letting it to be converted to ethylene. Ethylene level rises in plants under stress conditions i.e., drought, salinity, poor soil fertility etc. As poor soil fertility is a big hurdle to achieve the optimum yield of crops, inoculation of ACC deaminase PGPR can overcome this problem to some extent. The aim of the current study was to examine… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Vegetative Compatibility and Virulence Diversity of Verticillium dahliae from Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Plantations in Turkey and Evaluation of Okra Landraces for Resistance to V. dahliae

    Fatih M. Tok1, Sibel Dervis2,*, Halit Yetisir3

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08801

    Abstract Forty-four V. dahliae isolates were collected from symptomatic vascular tissues of okra plants each from a different field in eight provinces located in the eastern Mediterranean and western Anatolia regions of Turkey during 2006- 2009. Nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants of V. dahliae from okra were used to determine heterokaryosis and genetic relatedness among isolates. All isolates from okra plants were grouped into two vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) (1 and 2) and three subgroups as 1A (13.6%, 6/44), 2A (20.5%, 9/44) and 2B (65.9%, 29/44) according to international criteria. Pathogenicity tests were performed on a susceptible local okra (A. esculentus) landrace in… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Combined Role of ACC Deaminase Producing Bacteria and Biochar on Cereals Productivity under Drought

    Subhan Danish1,2, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08523

    Abstract Most of the cereal crops are widely cultivated to fulfil the humans food requirements. Under changing climate scenario, the intensity of drought stress is continuously increasing that is adversely affecting the growth and yield of cereal crops. Although the cereals can tolerate moderate drought to some extent, but mostly they are susceptible to severe drought stress. Higher biosynthesis of ethylene under drought stress has been reported. Many scientists observed that inoculation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is an efficacious tool to overcome this problem. These PGPR secrete ACC deaminase which cleavage the ACC into the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Dithiothreitol and PEG Induced Combined Stress May Affect the Expressions of ABA Aldehyde Oxidase, Sucrose Synthase and Proline Metabolic Genes in Maize Seedlings

    Cansu Altuntaş1, Rabiye Terzi1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08919

    Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle in the cell where proteins are created and folded. Folding is a very elaborate process that is often interrupted by various biotic and abiotic stresses, leading to the formation of unfolded and misfolded proteins called ER stress. Dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been recently reported in plants. Also, previous studies demonstrated that treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) could stimulate water deficit in crops. However, further researches should be conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanism of ER stress response and the relationship between water deficiency and ER. In… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Aspergillus tubingensis Causes Leaf Spot of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Pakistan

    Maria Khizar1, Urooj Haroon1, Musrat Ali1, Samiah Arif2, Iftikhar Hussain Shah2 , Hassan Javed Chaudhary1, Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol., , DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08010

    Abstract Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a key fiber crop of great commercial importance. Numerous phytopathogens decimate crop production by causing various diseases. During July-August 2018, leaf spot symptoms were recurrently observed on cotton leaves in Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan and adjacent areas. Infected leaf samples were collected and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. Causal agent of cotton leaf spot was isolated, characterized and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis based on morphological and microscopic observations. Conclusive identification of pathogen was done on the comparative molecular analysis of CaM and β-tubulin gene sequences. BLAST analysis of both sequenced genes showed 99%… More >

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