Table of Content

Open AccessOpen Access


A Novel Time Integration Method for Solving A Large System of Non-Linear Algebraic Equations

Chein-Shan Liu1, Satya N. Atluri2

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan. E-mail:
Center for Aerospace Research & Education, University of California, Irvine

Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences 2008, 31(2), 71-84.


Iterative algorithms for solving a nonlinear system of algebraic equations of the type: Fi(xj) = 0, i,j = 1,…,n date back to the seminal work of Issac Newton. Nowadays a Newton-like algorithm is still the most popular one due to its easy numerical implementation. However, this type of algorithm is sensitive to the initial guess of the solution and is expensive in the computations of the Jacobian matrix ∂ Fi/ ∂ xj and its inverse at each iterative step. In a time-integration of a system of nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) of the type Bijxj + Fi = 0 where Bij are nonlinear functions of xj the methods which involve an inverse of the Jacobain matrix Bij = ∂ Fi/ ∂ xj are called "Implicit'', while those that do not involve an inverse of ∂ Fi/ ∂ xj are called "Explicit''. In this paper a natural system of explicit ODEs is derived from the given system of nonlinear algebraic equations (NAEs), by introducing a fictitious time, such that it is a mathematically equivalent system in the n+1-dimensional space as the original algebraic equations system is in the n-dimensional space. The iterative equations are obtained by applying numerical integrations on the resultant ODEs, which do not need the information of ∂ Fi/ ∂ xj and its inverse. The computational cost is thus greatly reduced. Numerical examples given confirm that this fictitious time integration method (FTIM) is highly efficient to find the true solutions with residual errors being much smaller. Also, the FTIM is used to study the attracting sets of fixed points, when multiple roots exist.


Cite This Article

Liu, C., Atluri, S. N. (2008). A Novel Time Integration Method for Solving A Large System of Non-Linear Algebraic Equations. CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 31(2), 71–84.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 1098


  • 814


  • 0


Share Link