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Clinical, echocardiographic, and therapeutic aspects of congenital heart diseases of children at Douala General Hospital: A cross-sectional study in sub-Saharan Africa

Felicit e Kamdem1,2, Danielle Kedy Koum2,3, Ba Hamadou1,4, Melanie Yemdji1, Henry Luma1,4, Marie Solange Doualla1,4, Diomède Noukeu5, Esther Barla5, Christophe Akazong5, Anastase Dzudie1,4, Henry Ngote1, Yves Monkam1, Sidiki Mouliom1, Samuel Kingue4,6
1 Internal Medicine Service, Douala General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon
2 Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
3 Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital, Pediatric Service, Douala, Cameroon
4 Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon
5 Douala General Hospital, Pediatric Service, Douala, Cameroon
6 Yaounde General Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon
* Corresponding Author: Dr. Felicit e Kamdem, Internal Medicine Service, Douala General Hospital. PO Box: 4856 Douala, Cameroon. Email:

Congenital Heart Disease 2018, 13(1), 113-117. https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12529

Abstract

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases in pediatric pathologies have emerged in the recent years in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with congenital heart diseases (CHDs) being the most frequent. Unfortunately, their diagnosis is usually delayed, thereby increasing childhood morbidity and mortality.
Objectives: Describe the clinical, echocardiographic, and therapeutic aspects of CHDs of children at Douala General Hospital.
Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study over a 10-year period, from January 2006 to December 2015. Files and reports of cardiac ultrasounds of patients aged ≤ 15 years were reviewed.
Results: We reviewed the medical records of 1616 children, of which 370 (22.9%) had CHD. The age range was 1 day to 15 years, with a mean of 26 months. Heart murmur was the most frequent clinical sign, seen in 72.3% of the cases. CHD with left-to-right shunt was seen in 61.8%, with ventricular septal defect being the most common (29.8% of all cases). The second most common CHDs were those due to obstruction (20.4%), mainly pulmonary stenosis (19.6% of all cases). Cyanogenic CHDs accounted for 17.8% of cases, dominated by tetralogy of Fallot (7.4% of all cases). Indications for surgical treatment was found in 171 (46.2%) patients, but due to financial constraints, only 48 (28.1%) patients were operated. Among those who underwent surgery, 66.7% were operated abroad, and Humanitarian organizations financed the surgical management of 58.3% of those operated.
Conclusions: CHDs are seen in one out of five children seen in the pediatric cardiology unit of our Hospital for suspected heart disease. Most cases are diagnosed late in life as toddlers. The rate of surgical correction remains low due to financial constraints, with most cases operated abroad with the assistance of Humanitarian organizations.

Keywords

children, congenital heart disease, Douala General Hospital, sub-Saharan Africa

Cite This Article

Kamdem, F. E., Koum, D. K., Hamadou, B., Yemdji, M., Luma, H. et al. (2018). Clinical, echocardiographic, and therapeutic aspects of congenital heart diseases of children at Douala General Hospital: A cross-sectional study in sub-Saharan Africa. Congenital Heart Disease, 13(1), 113–117.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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