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Small atrial septal defects are associated with psychiatric diagnoses, emotional distress, and lower educational levels

Sebastian Udholm1, Camilla Nyboe1, Thomas Meinertz Dantoft2, Torben Jørgensen2,3,4, Charlotte U. Rask5, Vibeke E. Hjortdal1

1 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
2 Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hospital, Capital Region Copenhagen, Denmark
3 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
4 Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
5 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark

* Corresponding Author: Sebastian Udholm, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul‐Jensens Blvd. 99, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark. Email: email

Congenital Heart Disease 2019, 14(5), 803-810. https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12808

Abstract

Objective: For the first time, we wish to assess the psychiatric burden in adult patients living with small, unrepaired atrial septal defects (ASD) using register‐based data, com‐ bined with self‐reported measures on levels emotional distress and educational status.
Design: A descriptive study using both the unique Danish registries and validated psychiatric questionnaires and scales, including: The Symptom Checklist, Whiteley‐7, and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.
Patients: Adult patients with small, unrepairedASD, diagnosed between 1953 and 2011.
Outcome Measures: Number of register‐based psychiatric diagnoses. Additionally, symptoms of anxiety, depression, somatization, health anxiety, illness perception, and levels of educational attainment compared to age‐ and gender‐matched individu‐ als from the reference group.
Results: We identified 723 Danish patientswith a small, unrepairedASD.Approximately 17% of the patients eligible for inclusion had one or more psychiatric diagnoses. The most common diagnoses were neurotic, stress‐related, and somatoform disorders. A total of 140 patients (mean age 33 years) was included for examination of their mental health using psychiatric questionnaires and scales. Patients with small ASD had higher scores of depression and anxiety when compared to the reference group (0.57 ± 0.67 vs 0.39 ± 0.52; P < .001). Furthermore, patients reported more symptoms of somati‐ zation (0.51 ± 0.48 vs 0.34 ± 0.39; P < .001). Finally, a higher percentage of patients with an unrepaired ASD had no education beyond high school when compared to the reference group (33.3% vs 14.3%; P < .001) and a smaller proportion of patients had completed a short‐cycle higher education (6.5% vs 16.1%; P = .002).
Conclusion: Patients with a small, unrepaired ASD in adult life have more symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization compared to the reference group. Furthermore, fewer patients had no education beyond high school. These results support the guide‐ lines that adults with small ASD warrants regular lifelong follow‐up in specialized clinics aware of not only adverse somatic outcome but also rates of depression and anxiety

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APA Style
Udholm, S., Nyboe, C., Dantoft, T.M., Jørgensen, T., Rask, C.U. et al. (2019). Small atrial septal defects are associated with psychiatric diagnoses, emotional distress, and lower educational levels. Congenital Heart Disease, 14(5), 803-810. https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12808
Vancouver Style
Udholm S, Nyboe C, Dantoft TM, Jørgensen T, Rask CU, Hjortdal VE. Small atrial septal defects are associated with psychiatric diagnoses, emotional distress, and lower educational levels. Congeni Heart Dis. 2019;14(5):803-810 https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12808
IEEE Style
S. Udholm, C. Nyboe, T.M. Dantoft, T. Jørgensen, C.U. Rask, and V.E. Hjortdal "Small atrial septal defects are associated with psychiatric diagnoses, emotional distress, and lower educational levels," Congeni. Heart Dis., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 803-810. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1111/chd.12808



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