## Table of Content Open Access

REVIEW

# Trefftz Methods for Time Dependent Partial Differential Equations

Hokwon A. Cho1, M. A. Golberg2, A. S. Muleshkov1, Xin Li1

Department of Mathematical Sciences
University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154
517 Bianca Bay Street, Las Vegas, NV 89144

Computers, Materials & Continua 2004, 1(1), 1-38. https://doi.org/10.3970/cmc.2004.001.001

## Abstract

In this paper we present a mesh-free approach to numerically solving a class of second order time dependent partial differential equations which include equations of parabolic, hyperbolic and parabolic-hyperbolic types. For numerical purposes, a variety of transformations is used to convert these equations to standard reaction-diffusion and wave equation forms. To solve initial boundary value problems for these equations, the time dependence is removed by either the Laplace or the Laguerre transform or time differencing, which converts the problem into one of solving a sequence of boundary value problems for inhomogeneous modified Helmholtz equations. These boundary value problems are then solved by a combination of the method of particular solutions and Trefftz methods. To do this, a variety of techniques is proposed for numerically computing a particular solution for the inhomogeneous modified Helmholtz equation. Here, we focus on the Dual Reciprocity Method where the source term is approximated by radial basis functions, polynomial or trigonometric functions. Analytic particular solutions are presented for each of these approximations. The Trefftz method is then used to solve the resulting homogenous equation obtained after the approximate particular solution is subtracted off. Two types of Trefftz bases are considered, F-Trefftz bases based on the fundamental solution of the modified Helmholtz equation, and T-Trefftz bases based on separation of variables solutions. Various techniques for satisfying the boundary conditions are considered, and a discussion is given of techniques for mitigating the ill-conditioning of the resulting linear systems. Finally, some numerical results are presented illustrating the accuracy and efficacy of this methodology.

H. A. . Cho, M. A. . Golberg, A. S. . Muleshkov and X. . Li, "Trefftz methods for time dependent partial differential equations," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 1, no.1, pp. 1–38, 2004. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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