Vol.70, No.3, 2022, pp.5363-5381, doi:10.32604/cmc.2022.021113
A Hybrid Deep Learning-Based Unsupervised Anomaly Detection in High Dimensional Data
  • Amgad Muneer1,2,*, Shakirah Mohd Taib1,2, Suliman Mohamed Fati3, Abdullateef O. Balogun1, Izzatdin Abdul Aziz1,2
1 Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32160, Malaysia
2 Centre for Research in Data Science (CERDAS), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia
3 Information Systems Department, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, 11586, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Amgad Muneer. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Applications of Machine Learning for Big Data)
Received 22 June 2021; Accepted 23 July 2021; Issue published 11 October 2021
Anomaly detection in high dimensional data is a critical research issue with serious implication in the real-world problems. Many issues in this field still unsolved, so several modern anomaly detection methods struggle to maintain adequate accuracy due to the highly descriptive nature of big data. Such a phenomenon is referred to as the “curse of dimensionality” that affects traditional techniques in terms of both accuracy and performance. Thus, this research proposed a hybrid model based on Deep Autoencoder Neural Network (DANN) with five layers to reduce the difference between the input and output. The proposed model was applied to a real-world gas turbine (GT) dataset that contains 87620 columns and 56 rows. During the experiment, two issues have been investigated and solved to enhance the results. The first is the dataset class imbalance, which solved using SMOTE technique. The second issue is the poor performance, which can be solved using one of the optimization algorithms. Several optimization algorithms have been investigated and tested, including stochastic gradient descent (SGD), RMSprop, Adam and Adamax. However, Adamax optimization algorithm showed the best results when employed to train the DANN model. The experimental results show that our proposed model can detect the anomalies by efficiently reducing the high dimensionality of dataset with accuracy of 99.40%, F1-score of 0.9649, Area Under the Curve (AUC) rate of 0.9649, and a minimal loss function during the hybrid model training.
Anomaly detection; outlier detection; unsupervised learning; autoencoder; deep learning; hybrid model
Cite This Article
Muneer, A., Taib, S. M., Fati, S. M., Balogun, A. O., Aziz, I. A. (2022). A Hybrid Deep Learning-Based Unsupervised Anomaly Detection in High Dimensional Data. CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, 70(3), 5363–5381.
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