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Primary User-Awareness-Based Energy-Efficient Duty-Cycle Scheme in Cognitive Radio Networks

Zilong Jin1,2, Chengbo Zhang1 , Kan Yao3 , Dun Cao4 , Seokhoon Kim5, Yuanfeng Jin6,*
1 School of Computer Science, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China
2 Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET) Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China
3 Jiangsu Institute of Economic and Information Technology, Nanjing, 210003, China
4 School of Computer and Communications Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, 410114, China
5 Department of Computer Software Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, 31538, Rep. of Korea
6 Department of Mathematics, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, China
* Corresponding Author: Yuanfeng Jin. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 70(3), 5991-6005.

Received 05 July 2021; Accepted 09 August 2021; Issue published 11 October 2021


Cognitive radio devices can utilize the licensed channels in an opportunistic manner to solve the spectrum scarcity issue occurring in the unlicensed spectrum. However, these cognitive radio devices (secondary users) are greatly affected by the original users (primary users) of licensed channels. Cognitive users have to adjust operation parameters frequently to adapt to the dynamic network environment, which causes extra energy consumption. Energy consumption can be reduced by predicting the future activity of primary users. However, the traditional prediction-based algorithms require large historical data to achieve a satisfying precision accuracy which will consume a lot of time and memory space. Moreover, many of these schemes lack methods to deal with the very busy network environments. In this paper, one semi-supervised learning algorithm, i.e., tri-training, has been employed to investigate the prediction of primary activity. Based on the prediction results of tri-training, a duty-cycle mechanism and an intermediate node selection approach are proposed to improve the energy efficiency. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.


Cognitive radio; tri-training; duty-cycle; intermediate node; energy efficiency

Cite This Article

Z. Jin, C. Zhang, ,. Kan Yao, ,. Dun Cao, ,. Seokhoon Kim et al., "Primary user-awareness-based energy-efficient duty-cycle scheme in cognitive radio networks," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 70, no.3, pp. 5991–6005, 2022.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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