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Echo Location Based Bat Algorithm for Energy Efficient WSN Routing

Anwer Mustafa Hilal1,*, Siwar Ben Haj Hassine2, Jaber S. Alzahrani3, Masoud Alajmi4, Fahd N. Al-Wesabi2,5, Mesfer Al Duhayyim6, Ishfaq Yaseen1, Abdelwahed Motwakel1

1 Department of Computer and Self Development, Preparatory Year Deanship, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, AlKharj, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Computer Science, College of Science and Arts, King Khalid University, Mahayil Asir, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering at Alqunfudah, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Computer Engineering, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia
5 Faculty of Computer and IT, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen
6 Department of Natural and Applied Sciences, College of Community-Aflaj, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Anwer Mustafa Hilal. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 71(3), 6351-6364.


Due to the wide range of applications, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are increased in day to day life and becomes popular. WSN has marked its importance in both practical and research domains. Energy is the most significant resource, the important challenge in WSN is to extend its lifetime. The energy reduction is a key to extend the network's lifetime. Clustering of sensor nodes is one of the well-known and proved methods for achieving scalable and energy conserving WSN. In this paper, an energy efficient protocol is proposed using metaheuristic Echo location-based BAT algorithm (ECHO-BAT). ECHO-BAT works in two stages. First Stage clusters the sensor nodes and identifies tentative Cluster Head (CH) along with the entropy value using BAT algorithm. The second stage aims to find the nodes if any, with high residual energy within each cluster. CHs will be replaced by the member node with high residual energy with an objective to choose the CH with high energy to prolong the network's lifetime. The performance of the proposed work is compared with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Power-Efficient Zoning Clustering Algorithm (PEZCA) and Chaotic Firefly Algorithm CH (CFACH) in terms of lifetime of network, death of first nodes, death of 125th node, death of the last node, network throughput and execution time. Simulation results show that ECHO-BAT outperforms the other methods in all the considered measures. The overall delivery ratio has also significantly optimized and improved by approximately 8%, proving the proposed approach to be an energy efficient WSN.


Cite This Article

A. Mustafa Hilal, S. Ben Haj Hassine, J. S. Alzahrani, M. Alajmi, F. N. Al-Wesabi et al., "Echo location based bat algorithm for energy efficient wsn routing," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 71, no.3, pp. 6351–6364, 2022.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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