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Examination of Pine Wilt Epidemic Model through Efficient Algorithm

Ali Raza1,*, Emad E. Mahmoud2, A. M. Al-Bugami2, Dumitru Baleanu3,4, Muhammad Rafiq5, Muhammad Mohsin6, Muneerah Al Nuwairan7
1 Department of Mathematics, Govt. Maulana Zafar Ali Khan Graduate College Wazirabad, Punjab Higher Education Department (PHED), Lahore, 54000, Pakistan
2 Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Taif University, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Mathematics, Cankaya University, Balgat, Ankara, 06530, Turkey
4 Department of Medical Research, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan
5 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, 54600, Pakistan
6 Department of Mathematics, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, 6209111, Germany
7 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Ali Raza. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Inspired Computational Intelligence and Optimization Techniques for Real-World Engineering Applications)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 71(3), 5293-5310.

Received 21 October 2021; Accepted 22 November 2021; Issue published 14 January 2022


Pine wilt is a dramatic disease that kills infected trees within a few weeks to a few months. The cause is the pathogen Pinewood Nematode. Most plant-parasitic nematodes are attached to plant roots, but pinewood nematodes are found in the tops of trees. Nematodes kill the tree by feeding the cells around the resin ducts. The modeling of a pine wilt disease is based on six compartments, including three for plants (susceptible trees, exposed trees, and infected trees) and the other for the beetles (susceptible beetles, exposed beetles, and infected beetles). The deterministic modeling, along with subpopulations, is based on Law of mass action. The stability of the model along with equilibria is studied rigorously. The authentication of analytical results is examined through well-known computer methods like Non-standard finite difference (NSFD) and the model's feasible properties (positivity, boundedness, and dynamical consistency). In the end, comparison analysis shows the effectiveness of the NSFD algorithm.


Pine wilt disease; modeling; NSFD algorithm; linearization of NSFD algorithm; results

Cite This Article

A. Raza, E. E. Mahmoud, A. M. Al-Bugami, D. Baleanu, M. Rafiq et al., "Examination of pine wilt epidemic model through efficient algorithm," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 71, no.3, pp. 5293–5310, 2022.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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