Vol.73, No.2, 2022, pp.3165-3180, doi:10.32604/cmc.2022.026966
Bilateral Contract for Load Frequency and Renewable Energy Sources Using Advanced Controller
  • Krishan Arora1, Gyanendra Prasad Joshi2, Mahmoud Ragab3,4,5,*, Muhyaddin Rawa6,7,8, Ahmad H. Milyani6,7, Romany F. Mansour9, Eunmok Yang10
1 School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144001, Punjab, India
2 School of Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, 05006, Korea
3 Information Technology Department, Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
4 Centre for Artificial Intelligence in Precision Medicines, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
5 Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Naser City, 11884, Cairo, Egypt
6 Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy and Power Systems, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
7 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
8 King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (K. A. CARE), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
9 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, New Valley University, El-Kharga, 72511, Egypt
10 Department of Information Security, Cryptology, and Mathematics, Kookmin University, Seoul, 02707, Korea
* Corresponding Author: Mahmoud Ragab. Email:
Received 08 January 2022; Accepted 27 April 2022; Issue published 16 June 2022
Reestablishment in power system brings in significant transformation in the power sector by extinguishing the possession of sound consolidated assistance. However, the collaboration of various manufacturing agencies, autonomous power manufacturers, and buyers have created complex installation processes. The regular active load and inefficiency of best measures among varied associates is a huge hazard. Any sudden load deviation will give rise to immediate amendment in frequency and tie-line power errors. It is essential to deal with every zone’s frequency and tie-line power within permitted confines followed by fluctuations within the load. Therefore, it can be proficient by implementing Load Frequency Control under the Bilateral case, stabilizing the power and frequency distinction within the interrelated power grid. Balancing the net deviation in multiple areas is possible by minimizing the unbalance of Bilateral Contracts with the help of proportional integral and advanced controllers like Harris Hawks Optimizer. We proposed the advanced controller Harris Hawk optimizer-based model and validated it on a test bench. The experiment results show that the delay time is 0.0029 s and the settling time of 20.86 s only. This model can also be leveraged to examine the decision boundaries of the Bilateral case.
Bilateral contract; load frequency control; optimization; harris hawks optimizer
Cite This Article
K. Arora, G. Prasad Joshi, M. Ragab, M. Rawa, A. H. Milyani et al., "Bilateral contract for load frequency and renewable energy sources using advanced controller," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 73, no.2, pp. 3165–3180, 2022.
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