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Impediments of Cognitive System Engineering in Machine-Human Modeling

Fayaz Ahmad Fayaz1,2, Arun Malik2, Isha Batra2, Akber Abid Gardezi3, Syed Immamul Ansarullah4, Shafiq Ahmad5, Mejdal Alqahtani5, Muhammad Shafiq6,*

1 National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology (NIELIT), J&K, 191132, India
2 Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Lovely Professional University (LPU), Punjab, 144402, India
3 Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, 45550, Pakistan
4 Department of Computer Science, Govt. Degree College Sumbal Kashmir, 193501, India
5 Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh, 11421, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, 38541, Korea

* Corresponding Author: Muhammad Shafiq. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(3), 6689-6701.


A comprehensive understanding of human intelligence is still an ongoing process, i.e., human and information security are not yet perfectly matched. By understanding cognitive processes, designers can design humanized cognitive information systems (CIS). The need for this research is justified because today’s business decision makers are faced with questions they cannot answer in a given amount of time without the use of cognitive information systems. The researchers aim to better strengthen cognitive information systems with more pronounced cognitive thresholds by demonstrating the resilience of cognitive resonant frequencies to reveal possible responses to improve the efficiency of human-computer interaction (HCI). A practice-oriented research approach included research analysis and a review of existing articles to pursue a comparative research model; thereafter, a model development paradigm was used to observe and monitor the progression of CIS during HCI. The scope of our research provides a broader perspective on how different disciplines affect HCI and how human cognitive models can be enhanced to enrich complements. We have identified a significant gap in the current literature on mental processing resulting from a wide range of theory and practice.


Cite This Article

F. A. Fayaz, A. Malik, I. Batra, A. A. Gardezi, S. I. Ansarullah et al., "Impediments of cognitive system engineering in machine-human modeling," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.3, pp. 6689–6701, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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