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Advanced DAG-Based Ranking (ADR) Protocol for Blockchain Scalability

Tayyaba Noreen1,*, Qiufen Xia1, Muhammad Zeeshan Haider2

1 International School of Information Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116620, China
2 School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116620, China

* Corresponding Author: Tayyaba Noreen. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 75(2), 2593-2613.


In the past decade, blockchain has evolved as a promising solution to develop secure distributed ledgers and has gained massive attention. However, current blockchain systems face the problems of limited throughput, poor scalability, and high latency. Due to the failure of consensus algorithms in managing nodes’identities, blockchain technology is considered inappropriate for many applications, e.g., in IoT environments, because of poor scalability. This paper proposes a blockchain consensus mechanism called the Advanced DAG-based Ranking (ADR) protocol to improve blockchain scalability and throughput. The ADR protocol uses the directed acyclic graph ledger, where nodes are placed according to their ranking positions in the graph. It allows honest nodes to use the Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) topology to write blocks and verify transactions instead of a chain of blocks. By using a three-step strategy, this protocol ensures that the system is secured against doublespending attacks and allows for higher throughput and scalability. The first step involves the safe entry of nodes into the system by verifying their private and public keys. The next step involves developing an advanced DAG ledger so nodes can start block production and verify transactions. In the third step, a ranking algorithm is developed to separate the nodes created by attackers. After eliminating attacker nodes, the nodes are ranked according to their performance in the system, and true nodes are arranged in blocks in topological order. As a result, the ADR protocol is suitable for applications in the Internet of Things (IoT). We evaluated ADR on EC2 clusters with more than 100 nodes and achieved better transaction throughput and liveness of the network while adding malicious nodes. Based on the simulation results, this research determined that the transaction’s performance was significantly improved over blockchains like Internet of Things Applications (IOTA) and ByteBall.


Cite This Article

T. Noreen, . Q. Xia and . M. Z. Haider, "Advanced dag-based ranking (adr) protocol for blockchain scalability," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 75, no.2, pp. 2593–2613, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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