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  • Open Access


    A Novel Approach to Energy Optimization: Efficient Path Selection in Wireless Sensor Networks with Hybrid ANN

    Muhammad Salman Qamar1,*, Ihsan ul Haq1, Amil Daraz2, Atif M. Alamri3, Salman A. AlQahtani4, Muhammad Fahad Munir1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2945-2970, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.050168

    Abstract In pursuit of enhancing the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) energy efficiency and operational lifespan, this paper delves into the domain of energy-efficient routing protocols. In WSNs, the limited energy resources of Sensor Nodes (SNs) are a big challenge for ensuring their efficient and reliable operation. WSN data gathering involves the utilization of a mobile sink (MS) to mitigate the energy consumption problem through periodic network traversal. The mobile sink (MS) strategy minimizes energy consumption and latency by visiting the fewest nodes or pre-determined locations called rendezvous points (RPs) instead of all cluster heads (CHs). CHs subsequently transmit packets to neighboring… More >

  • Open Access


    DNBP-CCA: A Novel Approach to Enhancing Heterogeneous Data Traffic and Reliable Data Transmission for Body Area Network

    Abdulwadood Alawadhi1,*, Mohd. Hasbullah Omar1, Abdullah Almogahed2, Noradila Nordin3, Salman A. Alqahtani4, Atif M. Alamri5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2851-2878, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.050154

    Abstract The increased adoption of Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) technologies has resulted in the widespread use of Body Area Networks (BANs) in medical and non-medical domains. However, the performance of IEEE 802.15.4-based BANs is impacted by challenges related to heterogeneous data traffic requirements among nodes, including contention during finite backoff periods, association delays, and traffic channel access through clear channel assessment (CCA) algorithms. These challenges lead to increased packet collisions, queuing delays, retransmissions, and the neglect of critical traffic, thereby hindering performance indicators such as throughput, packet delivery ratio, packet drop rate, and packet delay. Therefore, we propose Dynamic Next… More >

  • Open Access


    Nonlinear Registration of Brain Magnetic Resonance Images with Cross Constraints of Intensity and Structure

    Han Zhou1,2, Hongtao Xu1,2, Xinyue Chang1,2, Wei Zhang1,2, Heng Dong1,2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2295-2313, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047754

    Abstract Many deep learning-based registration methods rely on a single-stream encoder-decoder network for computing deformation fields between 3D volumes. However, these methods often lack constraint information and overlook semantic consistency, limiting their performance. To address these issues, we present a novel approach for medical image registration called the Dual-VoxelMorph, featuring a dual-channel cross-constraint network. This innovative network utilizes both intensity and segmentation images, which share identical semantic information and feature representations. Two encoder-decoder structures calculate deformation fields for intensity and segmentation images, as generated by the dual-channel cross-constraint network. This design facilitates bidirectional communication between grayscale and segmentation information, enabling the… More >

  • Open Access


    Rolling Decision Model of Thermal Power Retrofit and Generation Expansion Planning Considering Carbon Emissions and Power Balance Risk

    Dong Pan1, Xu Gui1, Jiayin Xu1, Yuming Shen1, Haoran Xu2, Yinghao Ma2,*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.5, pp. 1309-1328, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2024.046464

    Abstract With the increasing urgency of the carbon emission reduction task, the generation expansion planning process needs to add carbon emission risk constraints, in addition to considering the level of power adequacy. However, methods for quantifying and assessing carbon emissions and operational risks are lacking. It results in excessive carbon emissions and frequent load-shedding on some days, although meeting annual carbon emission reduction targets. First, in response to the above problems, carbon emission and power balance risk assessment indicators and assessment methods, were proposed to quantify electricity abundance and carbon emission risk level of power planning scenarios, considering power supply regulation… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Defender-Attacker-Defender Model for Resilient Distributed Generator Planning with Network Reconfiguration and Demand Response

    Wenlu Ji*, Teng Tu, Nan Ma

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.5, pp. 1223-1243, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2024.046112

    Abstract To improve the resilience of a distribution system against extreme weather, a fuel-based distributed generator (DG) allocation model is proposed in this study. In this model, the DGs are placed at the planning stage. When an extreme event occurs, the controllable generators form temporary microgrids (MGs) to restore the load maximally. Simultaneously, a demand response program (DRP) mitigates the imbalance between the power supply and demand during extreme events. To cope with the fault uncertainty, a robust optimization (RO) method is applied to reduce the long-term investment and short-term operation costs. The optimization is formulated as a tri-level defender-attacker-defender (DAD)… More >

  • Open Access


    Side-Channel Leakage Analysis of Inner Product Masking

    Yuyuan Li1,2, Lang Li1,2,*, Yu Ou1,2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.1, pp. 1245-1262, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.049882

    Abstract The Inner Product Masking (IPM) scheme has been shown to provide higher theoretical security guarantees than the Boolean Masking (BM). This scheme aims to increase the algebraic complexity of the coding to achieve a higher level of security. Some previous work unfolds when certain (adversarial and implementation) conditions are met, and we seek to complement these investigations by understanding what happens when these conditions deviate from their expected behaviour. In this paper, we investigate the security characteristics of IPM under different conditions. In adversarial condition, the security properties of first-order IPMs obtained through parametric characterization are preserved in the face… More >

  • Open Access


    Efficient Route Planning for Real-Time Demand-Responsive Transit

    Hongle Li1, SeongKi Kim2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.1, pp. 473-492, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.048402

    Abstract Demand Responsive Transit (DRT) responds to the dynamic users’ requests without any fixed routes and timetables and determines the stop and the start according to the demands. This study explores the optimization of dynamic vehicle scheduling and real-time route planning in urban public transportation systems, with a focus on bus services. It addresses the limitations of current shared mobility routing algorithms, which are primarily designed for simpler, single origin/destination scenarios, and do not meet the complex demands of bus transit systems. The research introduces an route planning algorithm designed to dynamically accommodate passenger travel needs and enable real-time route modifications.… More >

  • Open Access


    Combined CNN-LSTM Deep Learning Algorithms for Recognizing Human Physical Activities in Large and Distributed Manners: A Recommendation System

    Ameni Ellouze1, Nesrine Kadri2, Alaa Alaerjan3,*, Mohamed Ksantini1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.1, pp. 351-372, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.048061

    Abstract Recognizing human activity (HAR) from data in a smartphone sensor plays an important role in the field of health to prevent chronic diseases. Daily and weekly physical activities are recorded on the smartphone and tell the user whether he is moving well or not. Typically, smartphones and their associated sensing devices operate in distributed and unstable environments. Therefore, collecting their data and extracting useful information is a significant challenge. In this context, the aim of this paper is twofold: The first is to analyze human behavior based on the recognition of physical activities. Using the results of physical activity detection… More >

  • Open Access


    A Hybrid Cybersecurity Algorithm for Digital Image Transmission over Advanced Communication Channel Models

    Naglaa F. Soliman1, Fatma E. Fadl-Allah2, Walid El-Shafai3,4,*, Mahmoud I. Aly2, Maali Alabdulhafith1, Fathi E. Abd El-Samie1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.1, pp. 201-241, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.046757

    Abstract The efficient transmission of images, which plays a large role in wireless communication systems, poses a significant challenge in the growth of multimedia technology. High-quality images require well-tuned communication standards. The Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) is adopted for broadband wireless communications, because of its low sensitivity to carrier frequency offsets and low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Data transmission through open-channel networks requires much concentration on security, reliability, and integrity. The data need a space away from unauthorized access, modification, or deletion. These requirements are to be fulfilled by digital image watermarking and encryption. This paper is mainly… More >

  • Open Access


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