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  • Open Access


    Outsmarting Android Malware with Cutting-Edge Feature Engineering and Machine Learning Techniques

    Ahsan Wajahat1, Jingsha He1, Nafei Zhu1, Tariq Mahmood2,3, Tanzila Saba2, Amjad Rehman Khan2, Faten S. Alamri4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.1, pp. 651-673, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047530

    Abstract The growing usage of Android smartphones has led to a significant rise in incidents of Android malware and privacy breaches. This escalating security concern necessitates the development of advanced technologies capable of automatically detecting and mitigating malicious activities in Android applications (apps). Such technologies are crucial for safeguarding user data and maintaining the integrity of mobile devices in an increasingly digital world. Current methods employed to detect sensitive data leaks in Android apps are hampered by two major limitations they require substantial computational resources and are prone to a high frequency of false positives. This… More >

  • Open Access


    Covalent Bond Based Android Malware Detection Using Permission and System Call Pairs

    Rahul Gupta1, Kapil Sharma1,*, R. K. Garg2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 4283-4301, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.046890

    Abstract The prevalence of smartphones is deeply embedded in modern society, impacting various aspects of our lives. Their versatility and functionalities have fundamentally changed how we communicate, work, seek entertainment, and access information. Among the many smartphones available, those operating on the Android platform dominate, being the most widely used type. This widespread adoption of the Android OS has significantly contributed to increased malware attacks targeting the Android ecosystem in recent years. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new methods for detecting Android malware. The literature contains numerous works related to Android malware detection.… More >

  • Open Access


    Detecting Android Botnet Applications Using Convolution Neural Network

    Mamona Arshad1, Ahmad Karim1, Salman Naseer2, Shafiq Ahmad3, Mejdal Alqahtani3, Akber Abid Gardezi4, Muhammad Shafiq5,*, Jin-Ghoo Choi5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2123-2135, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.028680

    Abstract The exponential growth in the development of smartphones and handheld devices is permeated due to everyday activities i.e., games applications, entertainment, online banking, social network sites, etc., and also allow the end users to perform a variety of activities. Because of activities, mobile devices attract cybercriminals to initiate an attack over a diverse range of malicious activities such as theft of unauthorized information, phishing, spamming, Distributed Denial of Services (DDoS), and malware dissemination. Botnet applications are a type of harmful attack that can be used to launch malicious activities and has become a significant threat… More >

  • Open Access


    Explainable Classification Model for Android Malware Analysis Using API and Permission-Based Features

    Nida Aslam1,*, Irfan Ullah Khan2, Salma Abdulrahman Bader2, Aisha Alansari3, Lama Abdullah Alaqeel2, Razan Mohammed Khormy2, Zahra Abdultawab AlKubaish2, Tariq Hussain4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.3, pp. 3167-3188, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039721

    Abstract One of the most widely used smartphone operating systems, Android, is vulnerable to cutting-edge malware that employs sophisticated logic. Such malware attacks could lead to the execution of unauthorized acts on the victims’ devices, stealing personal information and causing hardware damage. In previous studies, machine learning (ML) has shown its efficacy in detecting malware events and classifying their types. However, attackers are continuously developing more sophisticated methods to bypass detection. Therefore, up-to-date datasets must be utilized to implement proactive models for detecting malware events in Android mobile devices. Therefore, this study employed ML algorithms to… More >

  • Open Access


    A Health Monitoring System Using IoT-Based Android Mobile Application

    Madallah Alruwaili1,*, Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi1, Kamran Farid2, Mohammad Azad1, Saad Alanazi1, Asfandyar Khan2, Abdullah Khan2

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.2, pp. 2293-2311, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.040312

    Abstract Numerous types of research on healthcare monitoring systems have been conducted for calculating heart rate, ECG, nasal/oral airflow, temperature, light sensor, and fall detection sensor. Different researchers have done different work in the field of health monitoring with sensor networks. Different researchers used built-in apps, such as some used a small number of parameters, while some other studies used more than one microcontroller and used senders and receivers among the microcontrollers to communicate, and outdated tools for study development. While no efficient, cheap, and updated work is proposed in the field of sensor-based health monitoring… More >

  • Open Access


    The Trade-Off Between Performance and Security of Virtualized Trusted Execution Environment on Android

    Thien-Phuc Doan, Ngoc-Tu Chau, Jungsoo Park, Souhwan Jung*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.3, pp. 3059-3073, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.038664

    Abstract Nowadays, with the significant growth of the mobile market, security issues on the Android Operation System have also become an urgent matter. Trusted execution environment (TEE) technologies are considered an option for satisfying the inviolable property by taking advantage of hardware security. However, for Android, TEE technologies still contain restrictions and limitations. The first issue is that non-original equipment manufacturer developers have limited access to the functionality of hardware-based TEE. Another issue of hardware-based TEE is the cross-platform problem. Since every mobile device supports different TEE vendors, it becomes an obstacle for developers to migrate… More >

  • Open Access


    Augmenting Android Malware Using Conditional Variational Autoencoder for the Malware Family Classification

    Younghoon Ban, Jeong Hyun Yi, Haehyun Cho*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.2, pp. 2215-2230, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.036555

    Abstract Android malware has evolved in various forms such as adware that continuously exposes advertisements, banking malware designed to access users’ online banking accounts, and Short Message Service (SMS) malware that uses a Command & Control (C&C) server to send malicious SMS, intercept SMS, and steal data. By using many malicious strategies, the number of malware is steadily increasing. Increasing Android malware threats numerous users, and thus, it is necessary to detect malware quickly and accurately. Each malware has distinguishable characteristics based on its actions. Therefore, security researchers have tried to categorize malware based on their… More >

  • Open Access


    Applying Wide & Deep Learning Model for Android Malware Classification

    Le Duc Thuan1,2,*, Pham Van Huong2, Hoang Van Hiep1, Nguyen Kim Khanh1

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 2741-2759, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.033420

    Abstract Android malware has exploded in popularity in recent years, due to the platform’s dominance of the mobile market. With the advancement of deep learning technology, numerous deep learning-based works have been proposed for the classification of Android malware. Deep learning technology is designed to handle a large amount of raw and continuous data, such as image content data. However, it is incompatible with discrete features, i.e., features gathered from multiple sources. Furthermore, if the feature set is already well-extracted and sparsely distributed, this technology is less effective than traditional machine learning. On the other hand,… More >

  • Open Access


    Android IoT Lifelog System and Its Application to Motion Inference

    Munkhtsetseg1, Jeongwook Seo2,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 2989-3003, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.033342

    Abstract In social science, health care, digital therapeutics, etc., smartphone data have played important roles to infer users’ daily lives. However, smartphone data collection systems could not be used effectively and widely because they did not exploit any Internet of Things (IoT) standards (e.g., oneM2M) and class labeling methods for machine learning (ML) services. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel Android IoT lifelog system complying with oneM2M standards to collect various lifelog data in smartphones and provide two manual and automated class labeling methods for inference of users’ daily lives. The proposed system consists… More >

  • Open Access


    Malware Detection in Android IoT Systems Using Deep Learning

    Muhammad Waqar1, Sabeeh Fareed1, Ajung Kim2,*, Saif Ur Rehman Malik3, Muhammad Imran1, Muhammad Usman Yaseen1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.74, No.2, pp. 4399-4415, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.032984

    Abstract The Android Operating System (AOS) has been evolving since its inception and it has become one of the most widely used operating system for the Internet of Things (IoT). Due to the high popularity and reliability of AOS for IoT, it is a target of many cyber-attacks which can cause compromise of privacy, financial loss, data integrity, unauthorized access, denial of services and so on. The Android-based IoT (AIoT) devices are extremely vulnerable to various malwares due to the open nature and high acceptance of Android in the market. Recently, several detection preventive malwares are More >

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