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  • Open Access


    Eye-Tracking Based Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis Using Chaotic Butterfly Optimization with Deep Learning Model

    Tamilvizhi Thanarajan1, Youseef Alotaibi2, Surendran Rajendran3,*, Krishnaraj Nagappan4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.2, pp. 1995-2013, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039644

    Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be defined as a neurodevelopmental condition or illness that can disturb kids who have heterogeneous characteristics, like changes in behavior, social disabilities, and difficulty communicating with others. Eye tracking (ET) has become a useful method to detect ASD. One vital aspect of moral erudition is the aptitude to have common visual attention. The eye-tracking approach offers valuable data regarding the visual behavior of children for accurate and early detection. Eye-tracking data can offer insightful information about the behavior and thought processes of people with ASD, but it is important to be aware of its limitations… More >

  • Open Access


    Spatial Correlation Module for Classification of Multi-Label Ocular Diseases Using Color Fundus Images

    Ali Haider Khan1,2,*, Hassaan Malik2, Wajeeha Khalil3, Sayyid Kamran Hussain4, Tayyaba Anees5, Muzammil Hussain2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.1, pp. 133-150, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039518

    Abstract To prevent irreversible damage to one’s eyesight, ocular diseases (ODs) need to be recognized and treated immediately. Color fundus imaging (CFI) is a screening technology that is both effective and economical. According to CFIs, the early stages of the disease are characterized by a paucity of observable symptoms, which necessitates the prompt creation of automated and robust diagnostic algorithms. The traditional research focuses on image-level diagnostics that attend to the left and right eyes in isolation without making use of pertinent correlation data between the two sets of eyes. In addition, they usually only target one or a few different… More >

  • Open Access


    The Human Eye Pupil Detection System Using BAT Optimized Deep Learning Architecture

    S. Navaneethan1,*, P. Siva Satya Sreedhar2, S. Padmakala3, C. Senthilkumar4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.1, pp. 125-135, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034546

    Abstract The pupil recognition method is helpful in many real-time systems, including ophthalmology testing devices, wheelchair assistance, and so on. The pupil detection system is a very difficult process in a wide range of datasets due to problems caused by varying pupil size, occlusion of eyelids, and eyelashes. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) are being used in pupil recognition systems and have shown promising results in terms of accuracy. To improve accuracy and cope with larger datasets, this research work proposes BOC (BAT Optimized CNN)-IrisNet, which consists of optimizing input weights and hidden layers of DCNN using the evolutionary BAT algorithm… More >

  • Open Access


    A Novel Light Weight CNN Framework Integrated with Marine Predator Optimization for the Assessment of Tear Film-Lipid Layer Patterns

    Bejoy Abraham1, Jesna Mohan2, Linu Shine3, Sivakumar Ramachandran3,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.136, No.1, pp. 87-106, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.023384

    Abstract Tear film, the outermost layer of the eye, is a complex and dynamic structure responsible for tear production. The tear film lipid layer is a vital component of the tear film that provides a smooth optical surface for the cornea and wetting the ocular surface. Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a symptomatic disease caused by reduced tear production, poor tear quality, or excessive evaporation. Its diagnosis is a difficult task due to its multifactorial etiology. Out of several clinical tests available, the evaluation of the interference patterns of the tear film lipid layer forms a potential tool for DES diagnosis.… More >

  • Open Access


    Eye Detection-Based Deep Belief Neural Networks and Speeded-Up Robust Feature Algorithm

    Zahraa Tarek1, Samaa M. Shohieb1,*, Abdelghafar M. Elhady2, El-Sayed M. El-kenawy3, Mahmoud Y. Shams4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.45, No.3, pp. 3195-3213, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.034092

    Abstract The ability to detect and localize the human eye is critical for use in security applications and human identification and verification systems. This is because eye recognition algorithms have multiple challenges, such as multi-pose variations, ocular parts, and illumination. Moreover, the modern security applications fail to detect facial expressions from eye images. In this paper, a Speeded-Up Roust Feature (SURF) Algorithm was utilized to localize the face images of the enrolled subjects. We highlighted on eye and pupil parts to be detected based on SURF, Hough Circle Transform (HCT), and Local Binary Pattern (LBP). Afterward, Deep Belief Neural Networks (DBNN)… More >

  • Open Access


    Stage-Wise Categorization and Prediction of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Ensemble Learning and 2D-CNN

    N. M. Balamurugan1,*, K. Maithili2, T. K. S. Rathish Babu3, M. Adimoolam4

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.36, No.1, pp. 499-514, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.031661

    Abstract Diabetic Eye Disease (DED) is a fundamental cause of blindness in human beings in the medical world. Different techniques are proposed to forecast and examine the stages in Prognostication of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). The Machine Learning (ML) and the Deep Learning (DL) algorithms are the predominant techniques to project and explore the images of DR. Even though some solutions were adapted to challenge the cause of DR disease, still there should be an efficient and accurate DR prediction to be adapted to refine its performance. In this work, a hybrid technique was proposed for classification and prediction of DR. The… More >

  • Open Access


    The Effects of Water and Fertilizer Coupling on Plant and Soil Nitrogen Characteristics and Fruit Growth of Rabbiteye Blueberry Plants in a Semi-Arid Region in China

    Xiaolan Guo1,2, Di Zhao2, Jinbin Hu3, Delu Wang2,*, Jianbin Wang1, Muhammad Shakeel4

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.1, pp. 209-223, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023050


    To evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) and irrigation coupling on the soil N distribution, plant N utilization, and fruit yield of rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum), a field experiment was designed using two factors (water and fertilizer application) with four levels of irrigation and three levels of fertilization, and a control. Under the different water and fertilizer combinations, N primarily accumulated in the leaves. Irrigation and N application within appropriate ranges (pure N ≤ 29 g/plant and irrigation volume ≤ 2.5 L/plant) significantly improved the blueberry fruit yield. Increases in water and N within these ranges promoted the effective accumulation… More >

  • Open Access


    Eye Strain Detection During Online Learning

    Le Quang Thao1,2,*, Duong Duc Cuong2, Vu Manh Hung3, Le Thanh Vinh3, Doan Trong Nghia4, Dinh Ha Hai3, Nguyen Nhan Nhi3

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.35, No.3, pp. 3517-3530, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.031026

    Abstract The recent outbreak of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (Covid-19) has been causing many disruptions among the education systems worldwide, most of them due to the abrupt transition to online learning. The sudden upsurge in digital electronic devices usage, namely personal computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones is unprecedented, which leads to a new wave of both mental and physical health problems among students, for example eye-related illnesses. The overexposure to electronic devices, extended screen time usage and lack of outdoor sunlight have put a consequential strain on the student’s ophthalmic health because of their young age and a relative lack… More >

  • Open Access


    Ensemble Deep Learning with Chimp Optimization Based Medical Data Classification

    Ashit Kumar Dutta1,*, Yasser Albagory2, Majed Alsanea3, Hamdan I. Almohammed4, Abdul Rahaman Wahab Sait5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.35, No.2, pp. 1643-1655, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.027865

    Abstract Eye state classification acts as a vital part of the biomedical sector, for instance, smart home device control, drowsy driving recognition, and so on. The modifications in the cognitive levels can be reflected via transforming the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The deep learning (DL) models automated extract the features and often showcased improved outcomes over the conventional classification model in the recognition processes. This paper presents an Ensemble Deep Learning with Chimp Optimization Algorithm for EEG Eye State Classification (EDLCOA-ESC). The proposed EDLCOA-ESC technique involves min-max normalization approach as a pre-processing step. Besides, wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) technique is employed for… More >

  • Open Access


    Haemoglobin Measurement from Eye Anterior Ciliary Arteries through Borescope Camera

    Mohamed Abbas Ahamed Farook1,*, S. Rukmanidevi2, N. R. Shanker3

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.44, No.2, pp. 1763-1774, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.026260

    Abstract Nowadays, smartphones are used as self-health monitoring devices for humans. Self-health monitoring devices help clinicians with big data for accurate diagnosis and guidance for treatment through repetitive measurement. Repetitive measurement of haemoglobin requires for pregnant women, pediatric, pulmonary hypertension and obstetric patients. Noninvasive haemoglobin measurement through conjunctiva leads to inaccurate measurement. The inaccuracy is due to a decrease in the density of goblet cells and acinar units in Meibomian glands in the human eye as age increases. Furthermore, conjunctivitis is a disease in the eye due to inflammation or infection at the conjunctiva. Conjunctivitis is in the form of lines… More >

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