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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    FPSblo: A Blockchain Network Transmission Model Utilizing Farthest Point Sampling

    Longle Cheng1,2, Xiru Li1, Shiyu Fang2, Wansu Pan1, He Zhao1,*, Haibo Tan1, Xiaofeng Li1,2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.2, pp. 2491-2509, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047166

    Abstract Peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay networks provide message transmission capabilities for blockchain systems. Improving data transmission efficiency in P2P networks can greatly enhance the performance of blockchain systems. However, traditional blockchain P2P networks face a common challenge where there is often a mismatch between the upper-layer traffic requirements and the underlying physical network topology. This mismatch results in redundant data transmission and inefficient routing, severely constraining the scalability of blockchain systems. To address these pressing issues, we propose FPSblo, an efficient transmission method for blockchain networks. Our inspiration for FPSblo stems from the Farthest Point Sampling (FPS)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Measurement Study of the Ethereum Underlying P2P Network

    Mohammad Z. Masoud1, Yousef Jaradat1, Ahmad Manasrah2, Mohammad Alia3, Khaled Suwais4,*, Sally Almanasra4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.1, pp. 515-532, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044504

    Abstract This work carried out a measurement study of the Ethereum Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network to gain a better understanding of the underlying nodes. Ethereum was applied because it pioneered distributed applications, smart contracts, and Web3. Moreover, its application layer language “Solidity” is widely used in smart contracts across different public and private blockchains. To this end, we wrote a new Ethereum client based on Geth to collect Ethereum node information. Moreover, various web scrapers have been written to collect nodes’ historical data from the Internet Archive and the Wayback Machine project. The collected data has been… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Monitoring Peer-to-Peer Botnets: Requirements, Challenges, and Future Works

    Arkan Hammoodi Hasan Kabla, Mohammed Anbar, Selvakumar Manickam, Alwan Ahmed Abdulrahman Alwan, Shankar Karuppayah*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 3375-3398, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036587

    Abstract The cyber-criminal compromises end-hosts (bots) to configure a network of bots (botnet). The cyber-criminals are also looking for an evolved architecture that makes their techniques more resilient and stealthier such as Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks. The P2P botnets leverage the privileges of the decentralized nature of P2P networks. Consequently, the P2P botnets exploit the resilience of this architecture to be arduous against take-down procedures. Some P2P botnets are smarter to be stealthy in their Command-and-Control mechanisms (C2) and elude the standard discovery mechanisms. Therefore, the other side of this cyberwar is the monitor. The P2P botnet… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Windows 10's Browser Forensic Analysis for Tracing P2P Networks’ Anonymous Attacks

    Saima Kauser1, Tauqeer Safdar Malik1,*, Mohd Hilmi Hasan2, Emelia Akashah P. Akhir2, Syed Muhammad Husnain Kazmi3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 1251-1273, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022475

    Abstract A web browser is the most basic tool for accessing the internet from any of the machines/equipment. Recently, data breaches have been reported frequently from users who are concerned about their personal information, as well as threats from criminal actors. Giving loss of data and information to an innocent user comes under the jurisdiction of cyber-attack. These kinds of cyber-attacks are far more dangerous when it comes to the many types of devices employed in an internet of things (IoT) environment. Continuous surveillance of IoT devices and forensic tools are required to overcome the issues… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Machine Learning-based Stable P2P IPTV Overlay

    Muhammad Javid Iqbal1,2, Ihsan Ullah2,*, Muhammad Ali2, Atiq Ahmed2, Waheed Noor2, Abdul Basit2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 5381-5397, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024116

    Abstract Live video streaming is one of the newly emerged services over the Internet that has attracted immense interest of the service providers. Since Internet was not designed for such services during its inception, such a service poses some serious challenges including cost and scalability. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) is an application-level distributed paradigm to offer live video contents. In terms of ease of deployment, it has emerged as a serious alternative to client server, Content Delivery Network (CDN) and IP multicast solutions. Nevertheless, P2P approach has struggled to provide the desired streaming quality… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Learning Enabled Predictive Model for P2P Energy Trading in TEM

    Pudi Sekhar1, T. J. Benedict Jose2, Velmurugan Subbiah Parvathy3, E. Laxmi Lydia4, Seifedine Kadry5, Kuntha Pin6, Yunyoung Nam7,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 1473-1487, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.022110

    Abstract With the incorporation of distributed energy systems in the electric grid, transactive energy market (TEM) has become popular in balancing the demand as well as supply adaptively over the grid. The classical grid can be updated to the smart grid by the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) over the grids. The TEM allows the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) energy trading in the grid that effectually connects the consumer and prosumer to trade energy among them. At the same time, there is a need to predict the load for effectual P2P energy trading and can be… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Q-Learning Based Optimal Query Routing Approach for Unstructured P2P Network

    Mohammad Shoab, Abdullah Shawan Alotaibi*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.3, pp. 5765-5781, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.021941

    Abstract Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) is a class of Machine Learning (ML) that combines Deep Learning with Reinforcement Learning and provides a framework by which a system can learn from its previous actions in an environment to select its efforts in the future efficiently. DRL has been used in many application fields, including games, robots, networks, etc. for creating autonomous systems that improve themselves with experience. It is well acknowledged that DRL is well suited to solve optimization problems in distributed systems in general and network routing especially. Therefore, a novel query routing approach called Deep More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bcvop2p: Decentralized Blockchain-Based Authentication Scheme for Secure Voice Communication

    Mustafa Kara1,*, Muhammed Ali Aydın1,2, Hasan Hüseyin Balık1

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.31, No.3, pp. 1901-1918, 2022, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2022.021309

    Abstract Peer-to-peer VoIP applications are exposed to threats in the Internet environment as they carry out conversations over the Internet, which is an electronic communication line, and its security has always been largely a matter of concern. Authentication of the caller is the first line of defense among the security principles and is an important principle to provide security in VoIP application. Authentication methods in VoIP applications are usually based on trusted third parties or through centralized architecture. This situation creates problems in terms of single point of failure and privacy in call security over IP More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Blockchain Based Secure Solution for Cloud Storage: A Model for Synchronizing Industry 4.0 and IIoT

    Prakhar Sahu1,*, S. K. Singh1, Arun Kumar Singh2

    Journal of Cyber Security, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 107-115, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jcs.2021.020831

    Abstract Industry 4.0 is one of the hot topic of today’s world where everything in the industry will be data driven and technological advancements will take place accordingly. In the fourth phase of industrial revolution, manufacturers are dependent upon data produced by the consumers to invent, innovate or change anything for the product. Internet of things devices like OBD, RFID, IIoT, Smart devices are the major source of data generation and represents trends in the industry. Since the IoT device are vulnerable to hackers due to its limitation, consumer data security should be tighten up More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Survey on Security Threats and Solutions of Bitcoin

    Le Lai1,*,Tongqing Zhou1, Zhiping Cai1, Zhiyao Liang2, Hao Bai1

    Journal of Cyber Security, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 29-44, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jcs.2021.016349

    Abstract Bitcoin is known as the first decentralized digital currency around the world. It uses blockchain technology to store transaction data in a distributed public ledger, is a distributed ledger that removes third-party trust institutions. Since its invention, bitcoin has achieved great success, has a market value of about $200 billion. However, while bitcoin has brought a wide and far-reaching impact in the financial field, it has also exposed some security problems, such as selfish mining attacks, Sybil attack, eclipse attacks, routing attacks, EREBUS attacks, and so on. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of various More >

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