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  • Open Access


    Catheter-based anatomic and functional assessment of coronary arteries in anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery, myocardial bridges and Kawasaki disease

    Athar M. Qureshi1,2,3, Hitesh Agrawal2,3

    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.12, No.5, pp. 615-618, 2017, DOI:10.1111/chd.12500

    Abstract Most diagnostic testing in patients with anomalous aortic origins of coronary arteries, myocardial bridges, and coronary artery changes after Kawasaki disease are performed with the use of noninvasive techniques. In some cases, however, further diagnostic information is needed to guide the clinician in treating these patients. In such instances, cardiac catheterization with invasive anatomic and functional testing is an invaluable tool. Moreover, interventional treatment in the cardiac catheterization laboratory may be performed in a small subset of these patients. As the diagnosis of these conditions is now becoming more common, it is important for pediatric interventional cardiologists to be familiar… More >

  • Open Access


    Myocardial bridges: Overview of diagnosis and management

    Ian S. Rogers1,2, Jennifer A. Tremmel1, Ingela Schnittger1

    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.12, No.5, pp. 619-623, 2017, DOI:10.1111/chd.12499

    Abstract A myocardial bridge is a segment of a coronary artery that travels into the myocardium instead of the normal epicardial course. Although it is general perception that myocardial bridges are normal variants, patients with myocardial bridges can present with symptoms, such as exertional chest pain, that cannot be explained by a secondary etiology. Such patients may benefit from individualized medical/ surgical therapy. This article describes the prevalence, clinical presentation, classification, evaluation, and management of children and adults with symptomatic myocardial bridges. More >

  • Open Access


    Numerical Simulation of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Mohammadali Sharzehee1, Yuan Chang2, Jiang-ping Song2, Hai-Chao Han1,*

    Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics, Vol.16, Suppl.2, pp. 16-17, 2019, DOI:10.32604/mcb.2019.07129

    Abstract A myocardial bridge (MB), a congenital anomaly of the coronary artery, occurs when a segment of the epicardial coronary artery goes underneath the myocardium. MBs are often observed in the middle part of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. MB squeezes the vessel wall periodically and induces hemodynamic abnormalities which are correlated with angina and myocardial ischemia. The level of hemodynamics disturbances induced by MB depends on the myocardial bridge length, the degree of myocardial contractility, thickness, and location [1]. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), characterized by abnormal thickening of the heart wall, is a leading cause of death in patients of… More >

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