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  • Open Access


    Cushioning Performance of Hilbert Fractal Sandwich Packaging Structures under Quasi-Static Compressions

    Xingye Xu1, Haiyan Song1,2,*, Lijun Wang1,2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.1, pp. 275-292, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022637

    Abstract The sandwich structure of cushioning packaging has an important influence on the cushioning performance. Mathematical fractal theory is an important graphic expression. Based on Hilbert fractal theory, a new sandwich structure was designed. The generation mechanism and recurrence formula of the Hilbert fractal were expressed by Lin’s language, and the second-order Hilbert sandwich structure was constructed from thermoplastic polyurethane. The constitutive model of the hyperelastic body was established by using the finite element method. With the unit mass energy absorption as the optimization goal, the fractal sandwich structure was optimized, and the best result was obtained when the order was… More >

  • Open Access


    Preparation and Characterization of Sandwich Structured Materials with Interesting Insulation and Fire Resistance

    Haizhu Wu1,#, Jinxing Li1,#, Shouhu Bao1, Fuxian Yang1, Jun Zhang1, Hisham Essawy2,*, Guanben Du1, Xiaojian Zhou1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2029-2039, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019834

    Abstract A cellular material in the form of 3-layered sandwich structure material was prepared via sole use of mechanical stirring without any use of a foaming agent, while Tween-80 was employed as a foam stabilizer via a developed in-situ mold casting. The resulting structure displayed a good appearance with no visual defects. The 3-layered composition of the sandwish structure, “nonporous resin layer-porous foam layer-nonporous resin layer”, was examined in terms of the microstructure, density & density distribution, pulverization ratio, mechanical strength, insulation and flame retardant performance. It was indicated from the results that the bonding between the resin layer and foam… More > Graphic Abstract

    Preparation and Characterization of Sandwich Structured Materials with Interesting Insulation and Fire Resistance

  • Open Access


    Design of Sandwich Transducer Based on the Equivalent Length Algorithm

    Xinggang Jiang1, 2, Xianbin Zhu1, Shanda Li3, Daxi Geng1, 2, *, Deyuan Zhang1, 2

    Sound & Vibration, Vol.52, No.6, pp. 23-28, 2018, DOI:10.32604/sv.2018.03929

    Abstract The sandwich transducer structure is comprised of three components along its main axis: the back metal cap, piezoelectric ceramic stack and the horn. The purpose of this work is to present a simplified method, referred as the equivalent length algorithm, to design the actuator parameters including each segment length and the resonance frequency fs. The actuator length L and the propagation wavelength λ along its main axis satisfy the standing wave theory. So, define an equivalent length coefficient for each part of the actuator, and then the sandwich structure is regarded as a single material cylindrical rod with equivalent length… More >

  • Open Access


    Weight-Minimization of Sandwich Structures by a Heuristic Topology Optimization Algorithm

    C. Tapp1, W. Hansel, C. Mittelstedt, W. Becker2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.5, No.6, pp. 563-574, 2004, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2004.005.563

    Abstract A heuristic algorithm for the weight minimization of sandwich plates is presented. The method is based on a preexisting algorithm for the layerwise topology optimization of symmetric laminates under in-plane loads. The presented algorithm uses structural analyses based on finite elements and explicitly accounts for the special sandwich situation. During the optimization procedure the algorithm adds or subtracts material from the layers of the face sheets and the core of the sandwich plate in regions of high or low stresses respectively. The orientation angles of the layers of the sandwich facings are not varied inorder to alloweasy manufacturing. Several variantsofthe… More >

  • Open Access


    Impact Damage Detection in Composite Sandwich Structures by Low Frequency Lamb Waves

    C. Soutis1, K. Diamanti1

    The International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 49-54, 2007, DOI:10.3970/icces.2007.001.049

    Abstract A cost and time effective inspection strategy for in-service health monitoring of composites is demonstrated using the fundamental anti-symmetric A0 Lamb mode at frequencies of 15-20 kHz. In principle, this method involves analysis of the transmitted and/or reflected wave after interacting with the test-piece boundaries or discontinuities (defects). In the present work, the applicability of the technique to composite sandwich structures is explored. More >

  • Open Access


    Three-dimensional Finite Element Buckling Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Composite Shells with Cutouts

    J. Li, Z. H. Xiang, M. D. Xue1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 139-150, 2005, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2005.002.139

    Abstract This paper investigates the buckling response of honeycomb sandwich composite shells with cutouts under axial compression. The Wilson's incompatible solid Finite Element (FE) is used around cutouts to obtain the detail stress distribution there. While to reduce the computational expense, a special multilayered relative degrees-of-freedom (DOF) shell FE is used to model the regions far from the cutouts. The efficiency and accuracy of this modeling scheme are illustrated by two benchmarks. Then parametric studies are carried out to reveal how the buckling response is influenced by the area, the shape and the orientation of cutouts. More >

  • Open Access


    Soft Core Plane State Structures Under Static Loads Using GDQFEM and Cell Method

    E. Viola1, F. Tornabene1, E. Ferretti1, N. Fantuzzi1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.94, No.4, pp. 301-329, 2013, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2013.094.301

    Abstract The aim of this work is to study the static behavior of 2D soft core plane state structures. Deflections and inter-laminar stresses caused by forces can have serious consequences for strength and safety of these structures. Therefore, an accurate identification of the variables in hand is of considerable importance for their technical design. It is well-known that for complex plane structures there is no analytical solution, only numerical procedures can be used to solve them. In this study two numerical techniques will be taken mainly into account: the Generalized Differential Quadrature Finite Element Method (GDQFEM) and the Cell Method (CM).… More >

  • Open Access


    Optimization of a Sandwich Structure Using a Genetic Algorithm

    M.R. Khoshravan1, M. Hosseinzadeh1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 179-206, 2009, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2009.045.179

    Abstract A sandwich panel's optimum core height and composite face thickness, under defined loading, have been computed in order to reach the structure's lowest weight and highest stiffness. The Tsai-Hill criterion was used in order to control the support of transverse loading by the panel. Regarding the relationships in the sandwich materials, the studied material was modeled with the MATLAB package. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) that is based on statistics was used. Our goal was to obtain the best methods of the GA in order to present an optimization method for the sandwich structure. Hence, a sensibility analysis was performed. In… More >

  • Open Access


    Asymptotic Postbuckling Analysis of Composite and Sandwich Structures via the Assumed Strain Solid Shell Element Formulation

    Jihan Kim1, Yong Hyup Kim1, Sung Won Lee2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 263-276, 2004, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2004.006.263

    Abstract The Koiter's asymptotic method is combined with the assumed strain solid shell element formulation for postbuckling analysis of composite and sandwich structures. The assumed strain solid shell element is free of locking and the small angle assumption, and it allows multiple plies through the element thickness. While laminated composite structures are modeled with single element through the thickness, sandwich structures are modeled with three elements stacked through the thickness to model the face sheets and the core independently. The Koiter's method is used to trace initial postbuckling path. Subsequently, the Koiter's method is switched to the arc-length method to investigate… More >

  • Open Access


    Nonlinear Compression Behavior of Warp-Knitted Spacer Fabric: Effect of Sandwich Structure

    Xiaonan Hou1, Hong Hu1, Yanping Liu1, Vadim Silberschmidt2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.23, No.2, pp. 119-134, 2011, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2011.023.119

    Abstract Compressibility of warp-knitted spacer fabrics is one of their important mechanical properties with regard to many special applications such as body protection, cushion and mattresses. Due to specific structural features of the fabric and a non-linear mechanical behavior of monofilaments, the compression properties of this kind of fabrics are very complicated. Although several studies have been performed to investigate their compression behavior, its mechanism has not well been understood yet. This work is concerned with a study of compression mechanism of a selected warp-knitted spacer fabric with a given sandwich structure. Both experimental and numerical methods are used to study… More >

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