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  • Open Access


    BSTFNet: An Encrypted Malicious Traffic Classification Method Integrating Global Semantic and Spatiotemporal Features

    Hong Huang1, Xingxing Zhang1,*, Ye Lu1, Ze Li1, Shaohua Zhou2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 3929-3951, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047918

    Abstract While encryption technology safeguards the security of network communications, malicious traffic also uses encryption protocols to obscure its malicious behavior. To address the issues of traditional machine learning methods relying on expert experience and the insufficient representation capabilities of existing deep learning methods for encrypted malicious traffic, we propose an encrypted malicious traffic classification method that integrates global semantic features with local spatiotemporal features, called BERT-based Spatio-Temporal Features Network (BSTFNet). At the packet-level granularity, the model captures the global semantic features of packets through the attention mechanism of the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model. At the byte-level granularity,… More >

  • Open Access


    Malicious Traffic Compression and Classification Technique for Secure Internet of Things

    Yu-Rim Lee1, Na-Eun Park1, Seo-Yi Kim2, Il-Gu Lee1,2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.3, pp. 3465-3482, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.041196

    Abstract With the introduction of 5G technology, the application of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is expanding to various industrial fields. However, introducing a robust, lightweight, low-cost, and low-power security solution to the IoT environment is challenging. Therefore, this study proposes two methods using a data compression technique to detect malicious traffic efficiently and accurately for a secure IoT environment. The first method, compressed sensing and learning (CSL), compresses an event log in a bitmap format to quickly detect attacks. Then, the attack log is detected using a machine-learning classification model. The second method, precise re-learning after CSL (Ra-CSL), comprises a… More >

  • Open Access


    MTC: A Multi-Task Model for Encrypted Network Traffic Classification Based on Transformer and 1D-CNN

    Kaiyue Wang1, Jian Gao1,2,*, Xinyan Lei1

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.37, No.1, pp. 619-638, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.036701

    Abstract Traffic characterization (e.g., chat, video) and application identification (e.g., FTP, Facebook) are two of the more crucial jobs in encrypted network traffic classification. These two activities are typically carried out separately by existing systems using separate models, significantly adding to the difficulty of network administration. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Transformer are deep learning-based approaches for network traffic classification. CNN is good at extracting local features while ignoring long-distance information from the network traffic sequence, and Transformer can capture long-distance feature dependencies while ignoring local details. Based on these characteristics, a multi-task learning model that combines Transformer and 1D-CNN for… More >

  • Open Access


    GraphCWGAN-GP: A Novel Data Augmenting Approach for Imbalanced Encrypted Traffic Classification

    Jiangtao Zhai1,*, Peng Lin1, Yongfu Cui1, Lilong Xu1, Ming Liu2

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.136, No.2, pp. 2069-2092, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.023764

    Abstract Encrypted traffic classification has become a hot issue in network security research. The class imbalance problem of traffic samples often causes the deterioration of Machine Learning based classifier performance. Although the Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) method can generate new samples by learning the feature distribution of the original samples, it is confronted with the problems of unstable training and mode collapse. To this end, a novel data augmenting approach called GraphCWGAN-GP is proposed in this paper. The traffic data is first converted into grayscale images as the input for the proposed model. Then, the minority class data is augmented with… More >

  • Open Access


    Intelligent Resource Allocations for Software-Defined Mission-Critical IoT Services

    Chaebeen Nam1, Sa Math1, Prohim Tam1, Seokhoon Kim1,2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.73, No.2, pp. 4087-4102, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.030575

    Abstract Heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) applications generate a diversity of novelty applications and services in next-generation networks (NGN), which is essential to guarantee end-to-end (E2E) communication resources for both control plane (CP) and data plane (DP). Likewise, the heterogeneous 5th generation (5G) communication applications, including Mobile Broadband Communications (MBBC), massive Machine-Type Commutation (mMTC), and ultra-reliable low latency communications (URLLC), obligate to perform intelligent Quality-of-Service (QoS) Class Identifier (QCI), while the CP entities will be suffered from the complicated massive HIOT applications. Moreover, the existing management and orchestration (MANO) models are inappropriate for resource utilization and allocation in large-scale and complicated… More >

  • Open Access


    VPN and Non-VPN Network Traffic Classification Using Time-Related Features

    Mustafa Al-Fayoumi1, Mohammad Al-Fawa’reh2, Shadi Nashwan3,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 3091-3111, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.025103

    Abstract The continual growth of the use of technological appliances during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a massive volume of data flow on the Internet, as many employees have transitioned to working from home. Furthermore, with the increase in the adoption of encrypted data transmission by many people who tend to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN) or Tor Browser (dark web) to keep their data privacy and hidden, network traffic encryption is rapidly becoming a universal approach. This affects and complicates the quality of service (QoS), traffic monitoring, and network security provided by Internet Service Providers (ISPs), particularly for… More >

  • Open Access


    An Efficient Internet Traffic Classification System Using Deep Learning for IoT

    Muhammad Basit Umair1, Zeshan Iqbal1, Muhammad Bilal2, Jamel Nebhen4, Tarik Adnan Almohamad3, Raja Majid Mehmood5,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.1, pp. 407-422, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.020727

    Abstract Internet of Things (IoT) defines a network of devices connected to the internet and sharing a massive amount of data between each other and a central location. These IoT devices are connected to a network therefore prone to attacks. Various management tasks and network operations such as security, intrusion detection, Quality-of-Service provisioning, performance monitoring, resource provisioning, and traffic engineering require traffic classification. Due to the ineffectiveness of traditional classification schemes, such as port-based and payload-based methods, researchers proposed machine learning-based traffic classification systems based on shallow neural networks. Furthermore, machine learning-based models incline to misclassify internet traffic due to improper… More >

  • Open Access


    Semisupervised Encrypted Traffic Identification Based on Auxiliary Classification Generative Adversarial Network

    Jiaming Mao1,*, Mingming Zhang1, Mu Chen2, Lu Chen2, Fei Xia1, Lei Fan1, ZiXuan Wang3, Wenbing Zhao4

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.39, No.3, pp. 373-390, 2021, DOI:10.32604/csse.2021.018086

    Abstract The rapidly increasing popularity of mobile devices has changed the methods with which people access various network services and increased network traffic markedly. Over the past few decades, network traffic identification has been a research hotspot in the field of network management and security monitoring. However, as more network services use encryption technology, network traffic identification faces many challenges. Although classic machine learning methods can solve many problems that cannot be solved by port- and payload-based methods, manually extract features that are frequently updated is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Deep learning has good automatic feature learning capabilities and is an ideal… More >

  • Open Access


    A Network Traffic Classification Model Based on Metric Learning

    Mo Chen1, Xiaojuan Wang1, *, Mingshu He1, Lei Jin1, Khalid Javeed2, Xiaojun Wang3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.64, No.2, pp. 941-959, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.09802

    Abstract Attacks on websites and network servers are among the most critical threats in network security. Network behavior identification is one of the most effective ways to identify malicious network intrusions. Analyzing abnormal network traffic patterns and traffic classification based on labeled network traffic data are among the most effective approaches for network behavior identification. Traditional methods for network traffic classification utilize algorithms such as Naive Bayes, Decision Tree and XGBoost. However, network traffic classification, which is required for network behavior identification, generally suffers from the problem of low accuracy even with the recently proposed deep learning models. To improve network… More >

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