Axially Running Wave in Liquid Bridge
D.E. Melnikov; and V.M. Shevtsova

Source FDMP: Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 329-338, 2007
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Keywords Thermocapillary convection, hydrothermal wave, liquid bridge, instability, CFD.
Abstract Thermocapillary convection in a long vertical liquid column (called liquid bridge) subjected to heating from above is considered for a three-dimensional Boussinesq fluid. The problem is solved numerically via finite-volume method. Full system of three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy equation is solved for an incompressible fluid. Instability sets in through a wave propagating in axial direction with zero azimuthal wave number, which is a unique stable solution over a wide range of supercritical heating. Further increasing the applied temperature difference results in bifurcation of a second wave traveling azimuthally with a slightly higher frequency. The two waves co-exist within a certain range of the supercritical parameter and finally the axially running one gets suppressed while the azimuthal gets stronger.
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