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Modeling and Simulation of Valve Cycle in Vein Using an Immersed Finite Element Method

Xiang Liu1, Liangbo Sun2, Mingzhen Wang3, 4, Bin Li2, Lisheng Liu1, 5, *
1 Department of Engineering Structure and Mechanics, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, China.
2 College of Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, 430048, China.
3 China Special Vehicle Research Institute, Aviation Key Scientific and Technological Laboratory of High Speed Hydrodynamic, Jingmen, 448035, China.
4 Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016, China.
5 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, China.
* Corresponding Author: Lisheng Liu. Email: .

Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences 2020, 123(1), 153-183.

Received 07 October 2019; Accepted 16 January 2020; Issue published 01 April 2020


A vein model was established to simulate the periodic characteristics of blood flow and valve deformation in blood-induced valve cycles. Using an immersed finite element method which was modified by a ghost fluid technique, the interaction between the vein and blood was simulated. With an independent solid solver, the contact force between vein tissues was calculated using an adhesive contact method. A benchmark simulation of the normal valve cycle validated the proposed model for a healthy vein. Both the opening orifice and blood flow rate agreed with those in the physiology. Low blood shear stress and maximum leaflet stress were also seen in the base region of the valve. On the basis of the healthy model, a diseased vein model was subsequently built to explore the sinus lesions, namely, fibrosis and atrophy which are assumed stiffening and softening of the sinus. Our results showed the opening orifice of the diseased vein was inversely proportional to the corresponding modulus of the sinus. A drop in the transvalvular pressure gradient resulted from the sinus lesion. Compared to the fibrosis, the atrophy of the sinus apparently improved the vein deformability but simultaneously accelerated the deterioration of venous disease and increased the risk of potential fracture. These results provide understandings of the normal/abnormal valve cycle in vein, and can be also helpful for the prosthesis design.


Numerical simulation, fluid-structure interaction, immersed finite element method, adhesive contact method, bio-mechanics, venous valve.

Cite This Article

Liu, X., Sun, L., Wang, M., Li, B., Liu, L. (2020). Modeling and Simulation of Valve Cycle in Vein Using an Immersed Finite Element Method. CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, 123(1), 153–183.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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