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Risk Factors and Gender Differences for Depression in Chilean Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the National Health Survey 2016–2017

Gabriela Nazar1,2,*, Carlos-María Alcover3, Yeny Concha-Cisternas4,5, Igor Cigarroa5, Ximena Díaz-Martínez6, Mariela Gatica-Saavedra7, Fabián Lanuza8,9, Ana María Leiva-Ordónez10, María Adela Martínez-Sanguinetti11, Miquel Martorell2,12, Fanny Petermann-Rocha13,14, Claudia Troncoso-Pantoja15, Carlos Celis-Morales16

1 Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
2 Centro de Vida Saludable, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
3 Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, España
4 Pedagogía en Educación Física, Facultad de Educación, Universidad Autónoma, Talca, Chile
5 Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Santo Tomás, Los Ángeles, Chile
6 Grupo de Investigación Calidad de Vida, Departamento de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad del Biobío, Chillán, Chile
7 Depto de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
8 Centro de Epidemiología Cardiovascular y Nutricional (EPICYN), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
9 Biomarkers and Nutrimetabolomics Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, Food Technology Reference Net (XIA), Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute (INSA), Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028, Spain
10 Instituto de Anatomía, Histología y Patología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
11 Instituto de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
12 Departamento de Nutrición y Dietética, Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
13 Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile
14 BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
15 Centro de Investigación en Educación y Desarrollo (CIEDE-UCSC). Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile
16 Laboratorio de Rendimiento Humano, Grupo de Estudio en Educación, Actividad Física y Salud (GEEAFyS), Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile

* Corresponding Author: Gabriela Nazar. Email: email

International Journal of Mental Health Promotion 2022, 24(5), 679-697. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2022.020105

Abstract

Depressive disorders are recognized as one of the most common mental health conditions across different age groups. However, the risk factors associated with depression among older people from low-and middle-income countries remains unclear. This study aims to identify socio-demographic, health and psychosocial-related factors associated with depression in Chilean older adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 1,765 adults aged ≥60 years participants from the Chilean National Health Survey 2016–2017. Depression was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-SF). Associations between the exposure variables and depression were investigated using Poisson regression analyses. The main findings indicated that women showed higher likelihood of depression than men (Prevalence Ratio (PR) = 2.6 [95% CI: 1.40; 4.89]). An increased likelihood of depression was found in older adults with chronic pain, multimorbidity (≥2 diseases), previous diagnose of depression, high perception of stress, financial stress, and difficulties for social participation. In women, higher likelihood of depression was found for those with the frailty phenotype (PR:8.53 [95% CI: 1.68; 43.32]), rheumatoid arthritis (PR:2.41 [95% CI: 1.34; 4.34]), insomnia (PR:2.99 [95% CI: 1.74; 5.12]) and low self-rated well-being (PR:4.94 [95% CI: 2.26; 10.79]). Men who were divorced (PR:7.10 [95% CI: 1.44; 34.90]) or widowed (PR:10.83 [95% CI: 3.71; 31.58]), obese (PR:5.08 [95% CI: 1.48; 17.42) and who had asthma (PR: 7.60 [95% CI: 2.31; 24.99]) were associated with higher odds of depression. The current findings may have clinical implications for the early identification of older adults more susceptible to depression and also suggest the need to implement cultural and age-sensitive strategies to promote mental health in late life.

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APA Style
Nazar, G., Alcover, C., Concha-Cisternas, Y., Cigarroa, I., Díaz-Martínez, X. et al. (2022). Risk factors and gender differences for depression in chilean older adults: A cross-sectional analysis from the national health survey 2016–2017. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 24(5), 679-697. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2022.020105
Vancouver Style
Nazar G, Alcover C, Concha-Cisternas Y, Cigarroa I, Díaz-Martínez X, Gatica-Saavedra M, et al. Risk factors and gender differences for depression in chilean older adults: A cross-sectional analysis from the national health survey 2016–2017. Int J Ment Health Promot. 2022;24(5):679-697 https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2022.020105
IEEE Style
G. Nazar et al., "Risk Factors and Gender Differences for Depression in Chilean Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the National Health Survey 2016–2017," Int. J. Ment. Health Promot., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 679-697. 2022. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2022.020105



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