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Mental Health Disorders of the Indonesian People in the Early Stages of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Who is Vulnerable to Experiencing it?

Rofingatul Mubasyiroh1,*, Indri Yunita Suryaputri1, Sri Idaiani2, Lely Indrawati1, Tri Wurisastuti1, Siti Isfandari1, Nikson Sitorus1, Enung Nurhotimah3, Felly Philipus Senewe1

1 Research Center for Public Health and Nutrition, National Research and Innovation Agency, Jakarta, 10340, Indonesia
2 Research Center for Pre Clinical and Clinical Medicine, National Research and Innovation Agency, Jakarta, 10340, Indonesia
3 Bandung Health Polytechnic, Ministry of Health, Bandung, 40173, Indonesia

* Corresponding Author: Rofingatul Mubasyiroh. Email: email

International Journal of Mental Health Promotion 2022, 24(5), 725-737. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2022.021452

Abstract

The extraordinary situation related to COVID-19 makes people worry about their health, family health, work, finances, and other daily activities. This condition can lead to social unrest, which has consequences for mental health problems. This study aims to determine the mental health consequences at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. This is a cross-sectional study involving a target population aged 18 years and over who had access to electronic communication devices. An online questionnaire was randomly distributed and snowballed throughout 34 provinces in Indonesia. The study was conducted from 2 to 4 May 2020. Non-parametric and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with anxiety and depression. Two thousand seven hundred forty-three participants were involved in this study, with 69.16% female. In sum, 6.92% of participants had General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scores ≥ 10 for moderate-severe anxiety symptoms, and 8.57% had Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores ≥ 10 for moderate-severe depressive symptoms. The multivariate linear regression analyses showed that the strongest factors influencing anxiety and depression were a history of mental illnesses, chronic illnesses, the group affected by layoffs or job seekers, unemployed, students, younger age group, living in a rented house, single, and female. In contrast, the lower and secondary education level seems to reduce the risk of depression compared to those with higher education levels. Anxiety and depression occur during the periods of activity restriction during the COVID-19 pandemic and are influenced by several modifiable and non-modifiable factors. There is an urgent need to emphasize vulnerable groups such as those with a history of illness, those affected by layoffs/looking for work, and the younger age group.

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APA Style
Mubasyiroh, R., Suryaputri, I.Y., Idaiani, S., Indrawati, L., Wurisastuti, T. et al. (2022). Mental health disorders of the indonesian people in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic: who is vulnerable to experiencing it?. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 24(5), 725-737. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2022.021452
Vancouver Style
Mubasyiroh R, Suryaputri IY, Idaiani S, Indrawati L, Wurisastuti T, Isfandari S, et al. Mental health disorders of the indonesian people in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic: who is vulnerable to experiencing it?. Int J Ment Health Promot. 2022;24(5):725-737 https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2022.021452
IEEE Style
R. Mubasyiroh et al., "Mental Health Disorders of the Indonesian People in the Early Stages of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Who is Vulnerable to Experiencing it?," Int. J. Ment. Health Promot., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 725-737. 2022. https://doi.org/10.32604/ijmhp.2022.021452



cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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