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A Survey on Security Threats and Solutions of Bitcoin

Le Lai1,*,Tongqing Zhou1, Zhiping Cai1, Zhiyao Liang2, Hao Bai1

1 National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, China
2 Macau University of Science and Technology, 999078, Macau

* Corresponding Author: Le Lai. Email: email

Journal of Cyber Security 2021, 3(1), 29-44.


Bitcoin is known as the first decentralized digital currency around the world. It uses blockchain technology to store transaction data in a distributed public ledger, is a distributed ledger that removes third-party trust institutions. Since its invention, bitcoin has achieved great success, has a market value of about $200 billion. However, while bitcoin has brought a wide and far-reaching impact in the financial field, it has also exposed some security problems, such as selfish mining attacks, Sybil attack, eclipse attacks, routing attacks, EREBUS attacks, and so on. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of various attack scenarios that the bitcoin network may be subjected to, and the methods used to implement the attacks, and reviews the solutions and countermeasures proposed against these attacks. Finally, we summarized other security challenges and proposed further optimizations for the security of the bitcoin network.


Cite This Article

L. Lai, T. Zhou, Z. Cai, Z. Liang and H. Bai, "A survey on security threats and solutions of bitcoin," Journal of Cyber Security, vol. 3, no.1, pp. 29–44, 2021.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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