Vol.45, No.2, 2021, pp.229-257, doi:10.32604/biocell.2021.014338
OPEN ACCESS
REVIEW
Visualization of integrin molecules by fluorescence imaging and techniques
  • CHEN CAI1, HAO SUN2, LIANG HU3, ZHICHAO FAN1,*
1 Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, UConn Health, Farmington, 06030, USA
2 Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA
3 Cardiovascular Institute of Zhengzhou University, Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450051, China
* Address correspondence to: Zhichao Fan,
Received 18 September 2020; Accepted 22 November 2020; Issue published 19 February 2021
Abstract
Integrin molecules are transmembrane αβ heterodimers involved in cell adhesion, trafficking, and signaling. Upon activation, integrins undergo dynamic conformational changes that regulate their affinity to ligands. The physiological functions and activation mechanisms of integrins have been heavily discussed in previous studies and reviews, but the fluorescence imaging techniques –which are powerful tools for biological studies– have not. Here we review the fluorescence labeling methods, imaging techniques, as well as Förster resonance energy transfer assays used to study integrin expression, localization, activation, and functions.
Keywords
Integrins, Fluorescence imaging, Fluorescence labeling, Live-cell imaging, Super-resolution imaging, Intravital imaging, FRET
Cite This Article
CAI, C., SUN, H., HU, L., FAN, Z. (2021). Visualization of integrin molecules by fluorescence imaging and techniques. BIOCELL, 45(2), 229–257.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.