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Zinc alpha 2 glycoprotein (ZAG): A potential novel pharmacological target in diabetic retinopathy

UMAPATHY PRAKASH1, SUBRAMANIAM RAJESH BHARATHIDEVI1,*, RAMYA R. NADIG2, RAJIV RAMAN2, GIRISH SHIV RAO2, MUNA BHENDE2

1 R. S. Mehta Jain Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, KNBIRVO, Vision Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, 600006, India
2 Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, 600006, India

* Corresponding Author: Subramaniam Rajesh Bharathidevi, email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Genetic Polymorphism and Metabolic inflammation in Development of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome)

BIOCELL 2023, 47(7), 1473-1482. https://doi.org/10.32604/biocell.2023.027804

Abstract

Zinc alpha 2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a 41 KDa secretory soluble glycoprotein found in different body fluids like the serum, saliva, sweat, breast milk, and urine. It is also found in tissues like the testis, epididymis, kidney, spleen, liver, lungs, heart, and brain. ZAG is an adipokine with multiple roles, including lipid mobilization, modulating glucose metabolisms, improving insulin sensitivity, inhibiting tumor proliferation through RNAse activity, and suppressing inflammation. Low levels of zinc and ZAG are linked to metabolic syndrome and are also reported as potential biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy. Interestingly zinc has been found to regulate the binding of ZAG to fatty acids. Based on very few reports on the vitreous ZAG and based on its known functions, we speculate that ZAG has a potential role in diabetic retinopathy. In this article, we discuss the structural component of the protein, its secretion from various tissues, and its distribution in multiple tissues in normal and disease conditions, especially in diabetes and its complications.

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PRAKASH, U., BHARATHIDEVI, S. R., NADIG, R. R., RAMAN, R., RAO, G. S. et al. (2023). Zinc alpha 2 glycoprotein (ZAG): A potential novel pharmacological target in diabetic retinopathy. BIOCELL, 47(7), 1473–1482.



cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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