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Reversible Natural Language Watermarking Using Synonym Substitution and Arithmetic Coding

Lingyun Xiang1,2, Yan Li2, Wei Hao3,*, Peng Yang4, Xiaobo Shen5

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Intelligent Processing of Big Data on Transportation, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114, Hunan, China.
School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114, Hunan, China.
School of Traffic & Transportation Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114, Hunan, China.
Hunan Branch of CNCERT/CC, Changsha 410004, Hunan, China.
School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore.

* Corresponding Author: Wei Hao. Email: email.

Computers, Materials & Continua 2018, 55(3), 541-559. 10.3970/cmc.2018.03510


For protecting the copyright of a text and recovering its original content harmlessly, this paper proposes a novel reversible natural language watermarking method that combines arithmetic coding and synonym substitution operations. By analyzing relative frequencies of synonymous words, synonyms employed for carrying payload are quantized into an unbalanced and redundant binary sequence. The quantized binary sequence is compressed by adaptive binary arithmetic coding losslessly to provide a spare for accommodating additional data. Then, the compressed data appended with the watermark are embedded into the cover text via synonym substitutions in an invertible manner. On the receiver side, the watermark and compressed data can be extracted by decoding the values of synonyms in the watermarked text, as a result of which the original context can be perfectly recovered by decompressing the extracted compressed data and substituting the replaced synonyms with their original synonyms. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract the watermark successfully and achieve a lossless recovery of the original text. Additionally, it achieves a high embedding capacity.


Cite This Article

L. . Xiang, Y. . Li, W. . Hao, P. . Yang and X. . Shen, "Reversible natural language watermarking using synonym substitution and arithmetic coding," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 55, no.3, pp. 541–559, 2018.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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