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Self-embedding Image Watermarking based on Combined Decision Using Pre-offset and Post-offset Blocks

Daofu Gong1,2, Yan Chen1,2, Haoyu Lu1,*, Zhenyu Li3, Yibing Han1

Zhengzhou Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.
State Key Laboratory of Mathematical Engineering and Advanced Computing, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.
Department of Computer Science, University of York, York YO10 5GH, UK.

* Corresponding Author: Haoyu Lu. Email: email.

Computers, Materials & Continua 2018, 57(2), 243-260.


To detect and recover random tampering areas, a combined-decision-based self-embedding watermarking scheme is proposed herein. In this scheme, the image is first partitioned into 2×2 size blocks. Next, the high 5 bits of a block’s average value is embedded into its offset block. The tampering type of block is detected by comparing the watermarks of its pre-offset and post-offset blocks. The theoretical analysis and experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme not only has a lower ratio of false detection but also better performance with regard to avoiding random tampering.


Cite This Article

D. Gong, Y. Chen, H. Lu, Z. Li and Y. Han, "Self-embedding image watermarking based on combined decision using pre-offset and post-offset blocks," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 57, no.2, pp. 243–260, 2018.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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