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Analysis and Improvement of an Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol

Jifeng Zhong1,*, Zhihao Liu2,3,*, Juan Xu4

Navigation College, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021, China.
School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China.
Key Laboratory of Computer Network and Information Integration, Southeast University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 211189, China.
Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L3G1.

* Corresponding Authors: Jifeng Zhong. Email: ;
  Zhihao Liu. Email: .

Computers, Materials & Continua 2018, 57(3), 621-633.


The controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) with authentication protocol based on four particle cluster states via quantum one-time pad and local unitary operations is cryptanalyzed. It is found that there are some serious security issues in this protocol. An eavesdropper (Eve) can eavesdrop on some information of the identity strings of the receiver and the controller without being detected by the selective-CNOT-operation (SCNO) attack. By the same attack, Eve can also steal some information of the secret message that the sender transmits. In addition, the receiver can take the same kind of attack to eavesdrop on some information of the secret message out of the control of the controller. This means that the requirements of CQSDC are not satisfied. At last, we improve the original CQSDC protocol to a secure one.


Cite This Article

J. Zhong, Z. Liu and J. Xu, "Analysis and improvement of an efficient controlled quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 57, no.3, pp. 621–633, 2018.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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