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A Dual-Chaining Watermark Scheme for Data Integrity Protection in Internet of Things

Baowei Wang1,2,*, Weiwen Kong1, Wei Li1, Neal N. Xiong3

Jiangsu Engineering Centre of Network Monitoring, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, School of Computer and Software, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China.
Engineering Research Center of Electronic Information and Control from Fujian Provincial Education Department, Fuzhou, 350108, China.
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Northeastern State University, Oklahoma, USA.

* Corresponding Author: Baowei Wang. Email: .

Computers, Materials & Continua 2019, 58(3), 679-695.


Chaining watermark is an effective way to verify the integrity of streaming data in wireless network environment, especially in resource-constrained sensor networks, such as the perception layer of Internet of Things applications. However, in all existing single chaining watermark schemes, how to ensure the synchronization between the data sender and the receiver is still an unsolved problem. Once the synchronization points are attacked by the adversary, existing data integrity authentication schemes are difficult to work properly, and the false negative rate might be up to 50 percent. And the additional fixed group delimiters not only increase the data size, but are also easily detected by adversaries. In this paper, we propose an effective dual-chaining watermark scheme, called DCW, for data integrity protection in smart campus IoT applications. The proposed DCW scheme has the following three characteristics: (1) In order to authenticate the integrity of the data, fragile watermarks are generated and embedded into the data in a chaining way using dynamic grouping; (2) Instead of additional fixed group delimiters, chained watermark delimiters are proposed to synchronize the both transmission sides in case of the synchronization points are tampered; (3) To achieve lossless integrity authentication, a reversible watermarking technique is applied. The experimental results and security analysis can prove that the proposed DCW scheme is able to effectively authenticate the integrity of the data with free distortion at low cost in our smart meteorological Internet of Things system.


Cite This Article

B. Wang, W. Kong, W. Li and N. N. Xiong, "A dual-chaining watermark scheme for data integrity protection in internet of things," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 58, no.3, pp. 679–695, 2019.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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