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Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocol with Mutual Authentication Based on Single Photons and Bell States

Lili Yan1, *, Shibin Zhang1, Yan Chang1, Zhibin Sun2, Zhiwei Sheng1

1 School of Cybersecurity, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu, 610000, China.
2 Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

* Corresponding Author: Lili Yan. Email: email.

Computers, Materials & Continua 2020, 63(3), 1297-1307. https://doi.org/10.32604/cmc.2020.09873

Abstract

Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) can transmit secret messages directly from one user to another without first establishing a shared secret key, which is different from quantum key distribution. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum secure direct communication protocol based on signal photons and Bell states. Before the execution of the proposed protocol, two participants Alice and Bob exchange their corresponding identity IDA and IDB through quantum key distribution and keep them secret, respectively. Then the message sender, Alice, encodes each secret message bit into two single photons (| 01〉or|10〉) or a Bell state , and composes an ordered secret message sequence. To insure the security of communication, Alice also prepares the decoy photons and inserts them into secret message sequence on the basis of the values of IDA and IDB. By the secret identity IDA and IDB, both sides of the communication can check eavesdropping and identify each other. The proposed protocol not only completes secure direct communication, but also realizes the mutual authentication. The security analysis of the proposed protocol is presented in the paper. The analysis results show that this protocol is secure against some common attacks, and no secret message leaks even if the messages are broken. Compared with the two-way QSDC protocols, the presented protocol is a one-way quantum communication protocol which has the immunity to Trojan horse attack. Furthermore, our proposed protocol can be realized without quantum memory.

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Cite This Article

L. Yan, S. Zhang, Y. Chang, Z. Sun and Z. Sheng, "Quantum secure direct communication protocol with mutual authentication based on single photons and bell states," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 63, no.3, pp. 1297–1307, 2020.

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cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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