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Software Defect Prediction Based on Non-Linear Manifold Learning and Hybrid Deep Learning Techniques

Kun Zhu1, Nana Zhang1, Qing Zhang2, Shi Ying1, *, Xu Wang3

1 School of Computer Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.
2 School of Information Science and Engineering, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao, 276826, China.
3 Department of Computer Science, Vrije University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1081HV, The Netherlands.

* Corresponding Author: Shi Ying. Email: email.

Computers, Materials & Continua 2020, 65(2), 1467-1486.


Software defect prediction plays a very important role in software quality assurance, which aims to inspect as many potentially defect-prone software modules as possible. However, the performance of the prediction model is susceptible to high dimensionality of the dataset that contains irrelevant and redundant features. In addition, software metrics for software defect prediction are almost entirely traditional features compared to the deep semantic feature representation from deep learning techniques. To address these two issues, we propose the following two solutions in this paper: (1) We leverage a novel non-linear manifold learning method - SOINN Landmark Isomap (SLIsomap) to extract the representative features by selecting automatically the reasonable number and position of landmarks, which can reveal the complex intrinsic structure hidden behind the defect data. (2) We propose a novel defect prediction model named DLDD based on hybrid deep learning techniques, which leverages denoising autoencoder to learn true input features that are not contaminated by noise, and utilizes deep neural network to learn the abstract deep semantic features. We combine the squared error loss function of denoising autoencoder with the cross entropy loss function of deep neural network to achieve the best prediction performance by adjusting a hyperparameter. We compare the SL-Isomap with seven state-of-the-art feature extraction methods and compare the DLDD model with six baseline models across 20 open source software projects. The experimental results verify that the superiority of SL-Isomap and DLDD on four evaluation indicators.


Cite This Article

K. Zhu, N. Zhang, Q. Zhang, S. Ying and X. Wang, "Software defect prediction based on non-linear manifold learning and hybrid deep learning techniques," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 65, no.2, pp. 1467–1486, 2020.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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